When is an author said to be biased?
when their stance reflects a personal opinion, especially one that would be difficult to reasonable support.
a judgement or believe that one holds as true.
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a person with pronounced and definite beliefs
a type of opinion that is preconceived or held without reasonable grounds of support.
a tendency to think in a certain way, a literal inclination or slant toward a certain opinion or prejucice.
example: James Joyce is the greatest Irish writer.
example: Irish writers are glorified drunks whos work is sloppy and sentimental.
example: James Joyce is the greatest writer in the English language because the Irish literary tradition is stronger than any other.
opinion that reflects a bias
example: James Joyce’s writing is incomprehensible , the likely result of his tendency to overindulge in Irish whiskey
prejudice that reflects a bias
See chart for lines of questioning for determining authorial bias.
How can evidence be categorized?
1. Documented Fact2. Empirical3. Anecdotal
The most reliable form of evidence.
most persuasive exposition is based on sop point of this.
example: most Victorian novelists wer men.
facts gathered from observation and experience.
Why is empirical evidence not as reliable as documented fact?
1. May or may not become accepted as documented fact– it has not yet reached that level of reliability.2. Different observers often have different experiences, and arguments supported by emperical evidence are more open to debate.
Stories about people’s observations or experiences. personal accounts, not statistical data.
Philosophical arguments, in particular those that attempt to prove what is right or good, reatin this status.
author opinion (a judgement or belief that is held by the author.