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Last updated: December 25, 2019

  AUTOGENIC FUEL QUALITO QUANTIFIERY.DeviUG scholar, Department of ICESri Sairam Engineering CollegeChennai, Tamil Nadu,IndiaS.SubashiniUG scholar, Department of ICESri Sairam Engineering CollegeChennai, Tamil Nadu,India    V.DhaarniUG scholar, Department of ICESri Sairam Engineering CollegeChennai, Tamil Nadu, IndiaR.IlayarajaAssistant professor,Department of ICESri Sairam Engineering CollegeChennai , TamilNadu, India   Abstract— The main objective ofthis paper is to display fuel quantity and quality using the autogenic fuelqualito quantifier. This paper gives the idea of developing quality meter atlow cost with better accuracy.

The main problem with the existing system isthat the values are displayed either empty or full and there is no existingmethod for determining the fuel quality in vehicles. The problem can beovercome by the proposed method. In this method, the values are displayeddigitally. Moreover the fuel quality is also checked with low cost componentsand also the adulterant mixed with fuel can be easily found out. This methoduses Arduino platform as software for the quantity measurement and Fuzzy Logicconcept for the quality measurement. Among all the existing methods, thismethod is simple, reliable and economical.

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Keywords—Fuzzy systems ,Fuzzy control, Level measurement, sensors                                                                                                                                                             I.     INTRODUCTIONThe vehicle models on road range from old to therecent and their traffic is considered as a major source among others to urban air pollution.Automobile fuel adulteration isa clandestine and profit oriented operation. Theforeign substances are also called adulterants which when introduced alter anddegrade the quality of the base transport fuels3. Adulteration of diesel by mixingkerosene is a common and widespread practice. These practices lead to losses in several areas, which includedamaging engines and worsening air quality6. To avoid this user should have atechnology which will detect the fuel adulteration, quantity of fuel beingrefueled and emission caused by fuel5.Developing the quality meter which displays the fuel quality is the main objective of this paper.

In this, the quality of fuel is sensed  and the percentage of moisture in  the fuel is detected by means of the conductivity sensor.At the same time, quantity offuel issensed by float sensor, whilepetrol/diesel is being filled in the bunks. A fuzzy controller logic is used to process the output fromconductivity and float sensors. The fuzzy controller logic is programmed in thearduino board. The output from this is displayed in the LCD. In this, adulteration is indicated by meansof the alarm system in vehicles and the changes produced will be indicated as values in the LCD .The alarmsystem used here is buzzer .The buzzer will ON, if the certain percentage valueassigned is reduced.

The Literature review made by The American Society for Testing and MaterialsInternational (ASTM International) has developed and documented the testmethods for most of the widely used materials including petroleum products.Many ASTM tests for the gasoline and diesel have been standardized anddocumented. Someof these tests involve the measure of suitability of fuels for use in vehicles from the point of airpollution generated. Doping gasoline with solvents andother chemicals can leave harmful deposits in engines1. Though no test is specifically designed to measure the adulteration ofpetrol by mixing diesel or diesel by mixing kerosene, some tests namely Densitytest, Evaporation test, Distillation test  may be used to determine the adulteration offuel also.The following table shows the diesel and kerosene proportions with respect todensity TABLE1.

1 Diesel and kerosene proportions withrespect to density S.NO DIESEL AND KEROSENE PROPORTIONS(V/V) DENSITY AT 15°C (G/ML) KINEMATIC VISCOSITY AT 40°C (CST) 1 Pure Diesel 0.8456 2.63 2 Prescribed level 0.82-0.86 2 to 3 3 85:15 0.8400 2.33 4 75:25 0.

8390 2.16 5 65:35 0.8321 1.

89 6 50:50 0.8304 1.83 7 25:75 0.8234 1.5  The mixing ofkerosene and light diesel oil with diesel or naphtha and other solvents withpetrol which is not shown in routine tests is known as lax testing standards.

Yet, a small mix of 10-15 percent without violating the standards can help toreap lucrative profits as much as Rs 25000 profit per day just by mixing 15percent naphtha with petrol. Most developing country governments have not yetestablished a monitoring regime and system of fines that can act as a strongdeterrent to fuel adulteration. The non-availability of mechanism and instrumentsfor spot checking the quality of fuels is the main cause for differentialpricing and easy availability of adulterants in market. II. BLOCKDIAGRAM          Fig 1.

0 Overall Block Diagram The blockdiagram shown in fig 1.0 consists of float sensor, conductivity sensor,arduino board, LCD and alarm module. The Float sensor measures quantity of fuelbeing filled. The conductivity sensor detects the percentage of moisture in thefuel. The fuzzy controller logic is programmed in arduino such that the logic isused to process the output.

The output from the controller is displayed in LCD.An alarm system is used to indicate the fuel adulteration in vehicles. A 9Vbattery of type 6F22 is used for the power supply. The specifications ofbattery is described below  A. Specifications ModelNumber: 9V 6F 22 BatteryType: Zinc Carbon Size:6F22 006PJacket:Metal SingleBatteryDimensions (mm): L- 26. 5, H – 48. 5, W – 17. 5 (Max) NominalVoltage (V):9V DischargeResistance (?): 620 Cut-offVoltage (V): 5.

4 OperatingTemp: -5°C to 55°C TypicalWeight: 37 gramsTypicalVolume: 20.3 cubic centimeters  III. HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONSA.   Float sensor Float sensorused here is 100 ohm fuel sender where level of the fuel is measured byinstalling it in fuel tank from above. In this float sensor the switch may beused in an indicator, an alarm or any other devices. The value of the floatsensor increases in litres with decrease in its resistance value.

The includedwater proof seal will prevent the fuel leakage. The tank will read ‘Empty’ whenthe float is  at full extension, 128 mmfrom the top of the tank. The tank will read ‘Full’ when the float is 40 mmfrom the top of the sender. 1)Installation:   ·            The hole for the fuel tank should be 40mm diameter.·            The bolt centers are 40 mm apart.·            This fuel sender has a 100 ohm outputand it is compatible with all metersvand any other fuel meter that accepts a 100 ohm input. 2)  Float sensor connection witharduino and to LCD: Fig 1.

1 connection diagram of float sensor with arduino and LCD 3)  Quantity sensor readingequivalence: TABLE 1.2 Sensor reading vs. quantity in litres  SENSOR READING (IN V) QUANTITY(IN L) 0 0 .

22125 1 .4425 2 .66375 3 .885 4 1.10625 5 1.3275 6 1.

54875 7 1.77 8  B.   Conductivity sensor This sensor is used to measure themoisture and it provides a digital output when threshold of moisture isexceeded. The module is based on LM393 operational amplifier and is used ascomparator. It includes the electronic module and a printed circuit board thatcollects the fuel. The conductivity sensor used here is moisture type sensorthat sends the signal to the LM393 op-amp and to the output devices.  1) LM393  Op-amp: The LM393 is a dual differentialcomparator; this means that it accepts 2 inputs for comparison. It comparesthese voltage inputs and determines which value is larger.

Electronic decisionscan be made based on which input is greater and which input is smaller. Thus, acomparator is very useful in circuits where we measure levels and want ourcircuit to act a certain way based on whether the level of an input is greateror smaller than a certain threshold.  2)  Conductivitysensor connection with arduino: Fig 1.2 connection diagram of arduinowith conductivity sensor C.    Arduino unomicrocontroller Arduino is open source hardware.Arduino/Genuino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATMEGA328.

It is widely used in the cases wherea lot of physical inputs are necessary. 1) Specifications:  Power: 6 V to 20 V Memory:32KB,2KB of SRAM and 1KB of EEPROM I/O: 5V Current : 20 mA Communication: via computer or microcontroller, via UART TTL(5 V) D.   Outputdevices 1)  LCD: Liquid Crystal Display  is a flat panel display used in digital-watches,cameras and many portable computers. Here, the LCD is used to display thequality and quantity of the fuel.    a) LCD connection with arduino: Here 16×2 LCD is used which has 16pins and can be operated in 4-bit mode or 8-bit mode. For 4-bit mode, the datapins DB4 to DB7 are used whereas for 8-bit mode all the data pins have beenused.

·         LCD Gnd pin to Ground·         LCD Vcc pin to 5V·         LCD VEE pin to wiper·         LCD RS pin to digital pin 12·         LCD R/W pin to ground·         LCD Enable pin to digital pin 11·         LCD D4 pin to digital pin 5·         LCD D5 pin to digital pin 4·         LCD D6 pin to digital pin 3·         LCD D7 pin to digital pin 2·         LCD Led+ pin to 5V·         LCD Led-pin to ground Fig 1.3   LCD connection with arduino2)  LED: A light emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductordevice that emits  visible light when anelectric current passes through it2. Thus, the LED’s are used for indicationpurpose and it glows according to the result.

 3) Buzzer: A buzzer or beeper is an audiosignaling device used for alarming purposes. Typical uses of buzzers andbeepers include alarm devices, timers and confirmation of user inputs. The buzzershould be connected to arduino as I/O to any digital pin.  IV.

 SOFTWAREDESCRIPTION A.  Arduino software A program for Arduino can be writtenin any programming language so that the compiler produces binary machine codefor the target processor. It includes a code editor with features such as textcutting and pasting, searching and replacing text, automatic indenting, bracematching, and syntax highlighting, and provides simple method to compile andupload programs to an Arduino board. Arduino refers to an open-sourceelectronics platform or board and the software used to program it. An Arduinoboard can be purchased or pre-assembled because the hardware design is opensource are built by hand.

A pre-assembled Arduino board includes a microcontroller;this microcontroller is programmed using Arduino programming language and theArduino development environment. In essence, this platform provides a way tobuild and program electronic components. The Arduino software supports thelanguages C and C++ using special rules of code structuring. The Arduinosoftware contains a library for wiring projects, which provides many commoninput and output procedures. User-written code only requires two basicfunctions, for starting the sketch (i.e) loop and setup.

The Arduino softwareconverts the executable code into a text file in hexadecimal encoding that isloaded into the Arduino board by a boot loader program in the board’s firmware. v.  FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER FOR QUALITY MEASUREMENT A.  Fuzzyset concept: The difference between crisp (i.e., classical) and fuzzysets is established by introducing a membership function.

Consider a finite setX={x1, x2…, xn} which will be considered the universal set in what follows.The subset A of X consisting of the single elementx1can be described by the ndimensional membership vector Z(A) = (1,0,0,…,0), where the convention hasbeen adopted that a 1 at the  ithposition indicates that xi belongs to A.

The set B composed of the elements x1and xn is described by the vector Z (B) = (1, 0, 0, …. , 1).  B.  Differentapproaches to the analysis of Fuzzy concepts In mathematical logic, computerprogramming, philosophy and linguistics fuzzy concepts can be analyzed anddefined more accurately or comprehensively, by describing or modeling theconcepts using the terms of fuzzy logic or other sub structural logics. Moregenerally, clarification techniques can be used such as: ·        Contextualizing the conceptby defining the setting or situation in which the concept is used (context).

·        Identifying the intention,purpose, aim or goal associated with the concept. ·        Comparing and contrastingthe concept with related ideas in the present or the past (comparative andcomparative research). ·        Creating a model, likeness,analogy, metaphor, prototype or narrative which shows what the concept is aboutor how it is applied (isomorphism or simulation). ·        Mapping or graphing theapplications of the concept using some basic parameters (visualization). ·        Examining ”how likely” itis that the concept applies, statistically or intuitively (probability theory).

 ·        Engaging in a dialogue or repeateddiscussion, to exchange ideas about how to get specific about what it means andhow to clear it up (scrum method). ·        Assembling different applications of theconcept to different but related sets (Boolean logic).  C.  Controlwith Fuzzy logic A fuzzy controller is a regulatingsystem whose modus operand is specified with fuzzy rules. In general it uses asmall set of rules. The measurements are processed in their fuzzified form,fuzzy inferences are computed, and the result is defuzzified, that is, it istransformed back into a specific number. D.  Rule base ·        If0

·        If40

These rules usually take 2 variables as input, mapping cleanly toa two dimensional matrix, although theoretically a matrix of any number ofdimensions is possible. Based on the rule base mentioned above the followingtable is formed. TABLE 1.3 Fuzzy logic rules    HIGH/ LOW   VOUT2 <0   VOUT2 <40   VOUT2 <80   VOUT2 <100   VOUT2>0   LOW   HIGH   LOW   LOW   VOUT2>40   LOW   LOW   HIGH   LOW   VOUT2>80   LOW   LOW   LOW   HIGH   VOUT2>100   LOW   LOW   LOW   LOW   F.

 Algorithm Step1: Define linguistic variables and terms. Linguisticvariables are input and output variables are in the form of simple words orsentences.Step 2: Construct membership functions for them.Step 3: Construct knowledge base rules.Step 4: Obtain fuzzy value.Step 5: Perform defuzzification. G.

  Flowchart Fig 1.4 FlowchartVI PROGRAM CODE FOR DETERMINING QUALITY AND QUANTITY #include //Load Liquid Crystal LibraryLiquidCrystalLCD(11,10,9,2,3,4,5);  //Create Liquid Crystal Object called LCDconstint sensor=A0;constint sensor1=A1;// Assigninganalog pin A1 to variable ‘sensor’floatvout;  //temporary variable to hold sensor readingfloat vout1;float vout2;void setup() { pinMode(6, OUTPUT);  pinMode(7, OUTPUT);  pinMode(8, OUTPUT);  pinMode(12, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(6, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer offdigitalWrite(7, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer offdigitalWrite(8, HIGH);   // turn the Buzzer offdigitalWrite(12, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer offSerial.

begin(9600);LCD.begin(16,2); //Tell Arduino tostart your 16 column 2 row LCDLCD.setCursor(1,0);  //Set LCD cursor to upper left corner, column0, row 0LCD.print(“QUANTITY:”);  LCD.setCursor(1,1);  //Set LCD cursor to upper left corner, column0, row 048 LCD.print(“QUALITY :”); }void loop() {vout=analogRead(sensor);vout=(vout*5)/1023;vout=vout-0.

73; vout=vout/0.22125; // for 8 ltsif(vout<0.1){vout=0;}LCD.

setCursor(11,0);  LCD.print(vout);vout1=analogRead(sensor1);vout1=(vout1*5)/1023;vout2=vout1;vout2=vout2*20;LCD.setCursor(11,1);  LCD.print(vout2);LCD.setCursor(14,1);  LCD.print(“%”);if(vout2>0 && vout2 <40){digitalWrite(6, HIGH);   // turn the Buzzer offdigitalWrite(7, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer offdigitalWrite(8, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer offdigitalWrite(12, HIGH);   // turn the Buzzer off}if(vout2>40 && vout2<80 ){digitalWrite(6, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer offdigitalWrite(7, HIGH);   // turn the Buzzer offdigitalWrite(8, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer offdigitalWrite(12, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer off}if(vout2>80 && vout2<100 ){digitalWrite(6, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer offdigitalWrite(7, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer offdigitalWrite(8,HIGH);   // turn the Buzzer offdigitalWrite(12, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer off}delay(1000);     } VIIADVANTAGESOF PROPOSED SYSTEM ·        Adulterant mixedwith fuel can be easily found out.·        The fuel quantityis also checked.

·        Low costcomponents.·        Release of toxiccomponents is reduced due to adulteration of fuel. VIIIRESULT A) Quantity measurement Forthe measurement of the quantity theresult will be displayed in the LCD as follows:·         As the petrol is being filled in the bunks,the float sensor starts to rise up and the value in the LCD will be start toincrease. The value  is shown belowFig 1.5  Display of  Quantity of the fuel  B) quality measurement Forthe measurement of the Quality,the result will be displayed in the LCD, LED, and Buzzer. The results are shownin Table 1.

4. TABLE 1.4 Analyzed results  QUALITY OF PETROL LCD LED BUZZER High 99% Green Off Moderate <80% Yellow On Low <70% Red On  IXCONCLUSION This idea helps the customer to identify the theft done infuel bunks and also the quality of fuel will be known, as the product size weimplemented is very small and also portable. Even the Litmus tests are done inbunks, customer doesn't come to know whether the fuel they get is pure or not.  REFERENCES 1-D.Biswas, R.

Ray-Evaluation ofAdulterated Petrol-Fuel-year of publishment-20012-LED-Wikipedia3-O.Obodeh, N.LAkhere-Effect ofKerosene Doped Gasoline on Gasoline Engine Performance Characteristics-year ofpublishment-20104-LCD-Wikipedia5-Ram Narwade , Vijay Patil-9th SAEINDIA International MobilityConference – SIIMC2016, at India Habitat Centre, New Delhi, India-20166- Ale BB (2003). Fuel Adulteration and TailpipeEmissions, J. Inst.

Eng. 3(1): 12 – 16.                 

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