Based on information from the CDC and its page on Prostate Cancer. PSA is an abbreviation for Prostate Specific Antigen. A PSA test is a blood test that is done which detects levels of an antigen that your prostate releases when it is under stress. Be it cancer or inflammation. The PSA test is not something that can definitely diagnose cancer however it can noninvasively give doctors the information they may need in order to run tests that can definitively diagnose the problem (CDC, “Prostate Cancer”, 2017).
The CDC also lists the many symptoms of prostate cancer that would lead to a PSA test that are not a definitive signs of cancer. For example Painful urination could be because of a prostate problem or it may be due to an STI. Or Pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesn’t go away could be associated with prostate cancer however it could be as simple as a strained back or just joint problems. Granted these two alone are not going to automatically mean that a PSA test is needed but there are symptoms that are the same for multiple illnesses. The PSA test allows for doctors to take blood and assess it as opposed to a colonoscopy or any other invasive methods of detection. With that if cancer is found Nuclear Radiation may be the necessary treatment method (CDC, “Prostate Cancer”, 2017).
Based on the information found in Dr. Antone L. Brooks, and Dr. Lawrence T. Dauer’s article.
Over the past 15 years and more, research has been done checking for responses of biological systems to radiation exposure. This research has demonstrated that the molecular, cellular, and tissue-level responses are different depending on the strength of the dose and the length of exposure. Following a low-dose exposure, 3 main responses were observed, the bystander effects, adaptive protective responses, and genomic instability. After looking into these responses, it was found that the molecular and cellular responses were protective responses, whereas high-dose responses are often very damaging. Cell killing, tissue disruption, and inflammatory diseases are some of the responses (Brooks & Dauer, 2014, p. 179).