3 Purposes of Hebrew Poetry
• to express emotion• to instruct in wisdom• to facilitate worship
literary characteristics of Hebrew poetry
• The prominent use of figurative language• use of chiastic structure• use of acrostic structure• parallelism- the correspondence of a 2nd line to the first line in Hebrew poetry
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basic kinds of parallelism define…
• Synonymous parallelism: The thoughts in each line correspond synonymously (saying the same thing with different words). • Antithetical parallelism – The thoughts in each line are contrasting by way of correspondence. • Synthetic parallelism – The primary thought in the first line is developed and enriched by the corresponding second line.
predominant themes found within the book of Job.
• 3 FRIENDS CONSISTENT IN THEOLOGY OF RETRIBUTION• Throughout the dialogue, Job maintains his innocence • Job continually states that God has afflicted him and that God is his enemy • Job continually asks the question “why”? •Job desires to have his day in court with God.
List 5 types of psalms
Wisdom Psalms:Focus on this life, not the afterlife. Psalms of Lament: begins with a complaint,ends with an expression of trust Psalms of Thanksgiving: A call to remember God as a divine warriorPsalms of Praise: Hymns which praise the Lord in accompanimentImprecatory Psalms:reaffirming that which has already been promised by the prophets Penitential Psalms: Take note of the mercies of God which follow confession Messianic Psalms: royal psalms typologically reflecting God’s coming Davidic King
hermeneutical guidelines for reading the Proverbs
• Proverbs concentrate primarily on practical issues, not theological issues.• Proverbs are best studied topically, not contextually.• Proverbs were meant to be memorized, and therefore contain rich examples of figurative language.• Proverbs continually present a sharp contrast between the life of wisdom and the life of folly.
• Proverbs are general truths, not promises or legal guarantees from God.• Proverbs usually employ a literary device known as parallelism. An understanding of parallelism will enrich one’s appreciation of the Proverbs.• Proverbs need to be understood within their own cultural context, and then transferred to our modern culture
Main points of Proverbs
• Whom should you marry?• Wealth and poverty• The power of the tongue• Principles of childbearing• In the Pursuit of Ruin – Proverbs on Being Lazy• What Goes into Being a Good Friend?• Inner Attitudes are Destructive
7 key themes in the book of Ecclesiastes.
• The value of wisdom• The Sovereignty of God and the Existence of Eternity• The inevitability of Death• Enjoy Life• Remember God• Life Under the Sun• The vanity of life
reasons why we should not interpret the Song of Songs allegorically
• Christ would not think of the church in the terms expressed in the Song.• Not being quoted in the New Testament, it seems unlikely that the apostles would have viewed the Song as an allegory concerning Christ and the church.• It is only natural that the Bible would contain an expression of one of life’s strongest human emotions…
marital love.• Whenever the relationship between God and Israel is presented as an allegory in the Old Testament, the figurative expressions are always clearly defined as to their appropriate referent. Furthermore, the relationship between God and Israel is typically pictured by allegory in a negative sense, not in the positive sense as found in the Song of Songs.• To allegorize the Song leaves much detail without explanation as to its referent and allegorical point of comparison.
why we should accept a unified authorship for Isaiah
Quotations Attributed to Isaiah (John 12:38/Isaiah 53:1; John 12:39-40/Isaiah 6:10) – John attributes quotes from both sections of Isaiah to Isaiah the Prophet.• Jesus’ Quotations Attributed to Isaiah (Luke 4:17-19/Isaiah 61:1-2) – Quoting from “second Isaiah,” Jesus attributes this as original to Isaiah the Prophet.• “Holy One of Israel” – Used 12 times in Isaiah 1-39, 14 times in Isaiah 40-66, but only 6 times in the rest of the Old Testament. • The Septuagint (LXX) and the Dead Sea Scrolls both present a unified Isaiah
reasons why we should accept an early date of composition for Daniel
• The Aramaic section of the book (2:4b-7:28) favors an early date.• The Dead Sea Scrolls have a large representation from Daniel.
It is unlikely that Daniel would have had such a large influence among the Qumran community in only a few decades.• The rejection of an early date is primarily based upon an a priori rejection of predictive prophecy rather than real hard evidence.• The early Jewish communities accepted an early date and historical Daniel. • Jesus believed that Daniel was a prophet (Matt 24:15).• Not all predictive prophecy with the book was fulfilled between 400 and 150 BC.
promises of the New Covenant from Jeremiah and/or Ezekiel.
• Regeneration• Forgiveness of sin• Indwelling of the Holy Spirit• The Knowledge of God• A will to obey