Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Chelsea Leonard
Last updated: May 28, 2019
Bio-Pigment Production: Pigments, Resources andProductionAbstractLivingorganism have different pigments that give color to organism as well as play a developmentalrole. Mostly living organisms meet their surrounding through different colorsand colors play a great role in attraction because things can be accepted oreven rejected base on their color. Today, there is focus on syntheticbiological synthesis of pigments through microbes or fungi by fermentationtechnology. Bacteria and fungi are mostly use because they have properties likefast growth and easy processing. Microbial pigments offer several advantageslike they can be use as anticancer, immunosuppressive and antiproliferative.These pigments can also be use in different industries like food, pharmaceutical,textile etc. The demand natural pigment has been increased due to harmfulimpact of synthetic chemicals. This review outlines different pigments, their resourcesand natural and synthetic production of these pigments.
INTRODUCTIONPigmentsare chemical compound that have ability to absorb light and produce color dueto chromophore. Chromophore capture the light as a result electron get excited andjump to higher orbit and release colored wavelength of light energy. Pigmentsare present in almost every organism, plants are primary producer, so, weencountered with pigments at every step of our lives. They are present inleaves, fruits, vegetables and flowers as well as in eyes, skins and otheranimal structures. They are also produced in variety of fungi and bacteria.Synthetic and natural pigments have applications in food, medicines, cosmetic,clothes and many more. Natural pigments have very important function other thanjust beauty like chlorophyll and carotenoid play a role in photosynthesis. Whenplant is under stress they produce flavonoids in high amount and quinones haveability to convert light into chemical energy.
Hemoglobin in animal play a rolein oxygen transport. Melanin is major pigment in animals and human that giveprotection against sun rays. Many fungi also produced melanin that have role inmajor cycles. Pigments have variety of pharmacological activities.Traditionally people don’t care about pigment types but now because ofawareness public concern over type of pigment majorly use in food and otherindustries. The great work has been done that link pigments with illness soregulatory authorities have also stricken the rues about pigment use indifferent industries.
by understanding the real source of pigments lead to theirbetter use in different industries. Delgado-Vargas,F., Jiménez, A. R.
, & Paredes-López, O. (2000). Natural pigments:carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains—characteristics, biosynthesis,processing, and stability. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 40(3),173-289.Inprehistoric time, aesthetic use of pigment was common but use of color to foodwas first started by Egyptians.
Mauvine was first synthetic color. Thesesynthetic colors extensively use in food industry but current toxicology testingraise the concern regarding their use. Some dyes and pigments are responsiblefor allergies and cancers e.
g. benzene dyes are responsible for bowl cancer.Synthetic pigments also hinder the environment so interest toward naturalproduction of pigment has been increased. Plant and microbes are two principalsources of natural pigments. Pigments are naturally produce by plant butlarge-scale production have limitation such as cost etc.
Microbes such asbacteria and fungi are best sources for pigment production due to severaladvantages over plants. Rao, N., Prabhu, M., Xiao, M.
, & Li, W. J.(2017). Fungal and bacterial pigments: secondary metabolites with wideapplications. Frontiers in microbiology, 8, 1113.
Colors make theproduct attractive, world without colors cannot be imagine. The majordisadvantage of synthetic pigment is toxicity that why trend is shifted towardmicrobial synthetic pigments. Kumar,A., Vishwakarma, H. S., Singh, J.
, Dwivedi, S., & Kumar, M. (2015).MICROBIAL PIGMENTS: PRODUCTION AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN VARIOUSINDUSTRIES. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical Sciences, 5(1).Research trends andknowledge increase demand for safer pigments and dyes and this shift hittingthe economy very badly.
Filamentous fungi and various bacterial species havebeen approved for production as well as variety of species are underinvestigation. Dufossé,L., Caro, Y., & Fouillaud, M. (2017).
Fungal Pigments: Deep into theRainbow of Colorful Fungi. Journal of Fungi, 3(3), 45.This reviewpaper basically deals with natural and synthetic production of pigments andtheir application in various fields.
This is fast growing research area becauseof advances in technology and requirement of natural based synthetic pigments.Most common organism use for production are bacteria and fungi because they aretime and cost effective. Other systems such as plants can also be use but thathave negative impact. But still there are several issues that need to beaddressed related to bioproduction of bio-pigments.Classification of pigmentso Based on originBasedon origin there are two major type of pigments1. Natural2.
SyntheticNatural pigments:These are naturally produced by plants, animals,bacteria and fungi through natural processes.Synthetic pigments:These pigments are produced in laborites eitherthrough artificial system or through bacteria and fungi by fermentationtechnology.o Based on chemical structure:Thereare two basic types1. Conjugatedsystem 2. Metalcoordinated systemConjugated systems:These most common example of this system iscarotenoids and betalains.
Metal coordinated system:Myoglobin is most common example of this system.o Based on FDA approval:It includes1. Certifiable2. Non-certifiableCertifiable:Thosepigments that have FDA approval and mostly synthetic in nature.
Non-certifiable:Thosepigment that can never get certification because they are natural and belong tonature. Distribution of natural pigments1. Tetrapyrrole Derivatives2.
Isoprenoid Derivatives3. N-Heterocyclic Compounds4. Benzopyran Derivatives5. Quinones6. MelaninTetrapyrroleDerivativesThese compounds consist of pyrrole ring and its example includephytochrome that is common in algae.in cyclic compounds such as hemoglobin, porphyrinis attach to iron atom. Tetrapyrrole derivates are more commonly found in chlorophyll.
Chlorophyll is present in plants as well as in algae and most importantfunction of chlorophyll is photosynthesis.N-HeterocyclicCompoundsIt includes purines, pterins, flavins, phenazines, phenoxazines andbetalains. Purines that are major component of DNA and RNA. Growth factors arepterins and most common pterins is folic acid. Flavins play a role in redox reaction.Phenazines are most commonly present in bacteria and phenoxazines are presentin fungi and bacteria.BenzopyranDerivativesFlavonoids are most common to this group which are phenolic compounds andbreak down into 13 different classes color and oxidation state.
These are mostcommon to vascular plants and 5000 flavonoids have been structurallyclassified. Anthocyanin is most common pigment belong to flavonoids. Flavanoneand flavonoid are other pigment in this family. They play role as antioxidants,sexual process in plant, photoprotection, defense mechanism and otherecological functions.
QuinonesThese are important coloring agent but only present in some higherorganism as well as some microorganisms and they major application in foodindustry. They play role in redox reaction and have high reactivity. The mostimportant quinone is carminic acid. They also play role as cofactor in manyenzymes.
Iridoids They are not considering as important pigment but have a role inalkaloids synthesis and only present in higher plants.MelaninMelanin are not important for growth but have a severely importantfunction in defense role. They are capable of suppressing tumors andinfections. Colors play a great role in different applications number of patents hasalso been increased over years.
FDA has proper guidelines for approval ofdifferent pigments especially use for food, medicine. FDA have strict policiesregarding licensing of pigment because some pigments are capable of causingcancer and other serious threats. Delgado-Vargas, F., Jiménez, A. R., -López, O.
(2000). Natural pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins, andbetalains—characteristics, biosynthesis, processing, and stability. Criticalreviews in food science and nutrition, 40(3), 173-289.Resources andproduction of pigments:o The major natural resources ofpigments are1. Plants2. Animals 3. Marine animals4. Fungi5.
Bacteria6. Algaeo The major synthetic resources ofpigments are1. Bacteria 2.
Fungi 3. Yeast 4. MouldKumar, A.
, Vishwakarma, H. S., Singh, J., Dwivedi, S., , M. (2015). MICROBIAL PIGMENTS: PRODUCTION AND THEIR APPLICATIONS INVARIOUS INDUSTRIES. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical& Biological Sciences, 5(1).
Natural pigments and their production cyclesPlant pigmentsChlorophyllIt is majorphotosynthetic pigment that is present in chloroplast. It has two major types chlorophylla and chlorophyll b. It has two basic chains that are linked to each other oneis phytyl side chain and other is non-isoprenoid porphyrin ring. So, it is alsoknown as prenyl pigment. In higher plants chlorophyll, a is major pigment andchlorophyll b is accessory pigment but both have definite role in photosynthesis.Chlorophyll is water insoluble pigment. Chlorophyll a is present in all plants.Chlorophyll is majorly responsible for the photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll afunction as a photo-enzyme and it is important organic compound. Another typeof chlorophyll that play a role in photosynthesis is accessory pigment chlorophyllb. Chlorophyll a and b have similar structure with 4 pyrrole rings and joined byCH bridges.
Chlorophyll a and b have central atom that is heme group and magnesium.Magnesium have catalytic role but its function is still unknown. Phytol ring ismost important because it allow the chloroplast to bind to other molecules in chloroplast.Chlorophyll b is accessory pigment to chlorophyll a but differ from chlorophylla by side chain. Chlorophyll a has -CH3 while chlorophyll b has differentgroup. Chlorophyll a gives two bands.
The one band is in blue-violet regionthat is called soret region and is common to porphin. Other is red region thatis specific to chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is main light absorbing pigment becausewithout this absorption photosynthesis is not possible. In solution chlorophyllb is blue green while chlorophyll a is yellowish green and this differencenarrow down green gap. Chlorophyll a play role in both reactions that is darkor light reactions.
It is primary donor in both photosystem I or II. Chlorophyllb is most commonly present in photosystem II. Chlorophyll a and b both have their own importance becausewithout chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a cannot conduct photosynthesis. The system iscomplex and coordinated so Proper understandingrequires to understand each and every factor alone and then move toward their relationship study.
Struck A. Cmiel E. Katheder I. aScheer H. Modifie reactio center fro Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26bacteriochlorophyll wit modifie C- substituent a site B an B FEBS Leu., 268,180 1990.
PHOTOPHYSIOLOGYand PHOTOSYNTHESISSunlight is responsible for photochemical reactions but light amount received byplants and animals depends on light intensity as well as exposure duration. Lightis important for growth. Photosynthesis is a process in which plant use carbondioxide, water and sun light and produce carbohydrate and it is anabolicreaction.
Photosynthesis take place in leaf and leaf have three basic type of tissuesthat are epidermis, mesophyll and vascular bundles. Epidermis is a outer layerthat do not contain chloroplast. It has outer waxy layer that inhibit waterloss and its thickness vary specie to specie. Epidermis has small openings callstomata that are responsible for transpiration and gas exchange. Upper epidermishas more stomata than lower epidermis. Mesophyll are the house wherephotosynthesis take place and these cells contain nucleus and cytoplasm. These cellform parenchyma tissues and cell have basically have two parts that areparenchyma palisade and spongy parenchyma.
All mesophyll cell has chloroplastbut chloroplast is high in number in palisade. Vascular bundle includes xylemand phloem that play role in conduction of water and food. These are present onboth upper and lower epidermis.
Leaf traces connect the vascular bundle of stemand leaves. Raw material for photosynthesis is carbon dioxide, water and light.Atmosphere is source of carbon dioxide. Sun is source of light and plant havepigment that absorb sun light and carryout photosynthesis.Mishra, S. R.
(2004). Photosynthesis in Plants. Discovery Publishing House.Plant have differentorganelles one of them is chloroplast that play a role in photosynthesis. Basedon chloroplast plant can be autotrophic or heterotrophic. Chloroplast hasseveral types depending on color that are leucoplast, chromoplast and chloroplast.
Chloroplast is most common to leaves but chromoplast is present in flowers.Instead of these there are other types such as amyloplast and proteinoplastthat are storage products. Amyloplast store starch and starch is made up ofamylose and amylopectin. Proteins also accumulate in different forms in proteinoplast.
Lipids also store plastid and termed as elaiplast. Under specific conditionschloroplast also store starch and named as chloroamyloplast. Chloroplast havefully developed functional membrane but leucoplast and chromoplast lack fullyfunctional membranes. Plant vary based on C3 and C4 pathways. Monocotyledon anddicotyledon have this C3 pathway and it take place in mesophyll. Chloroplast isdouble membrane and space between two membranes allow the movement ofmolecules. This gap lack chloroplast.
Chloroplast also has stroma where darkreaction occurs and has important enzymes. Chloroplast is self-replicatingorganelle so have DNA and ribosomes. Ribosomes can be free and can attach tochloroplast membrane.
Light photosynthetic reaction occurs in chloroplastmembrane. Thylakoid membrane has different protein and enzymes that areessential for photosynthesis. The photosystem II and electron transport chainis specifically related to thylakoid membrane. Photosystem I is predominant instroma. Light absorbing pigment are major part of thylakoid membrane and inhigher plant these pigments are chlorophyll and carotenoid.
Chlorophyll a is majorpigment and have different forms. The two most common forms are shortwavelength absorbing chlorophyll a that reside in photosystem II and otherabsorb large wavelength that reside inside photosystem I. Chlorophyll b is asupportive pigment and present in photosystem II. Carotenoids are also presentalong with chlorophyll and play major role in photosynthesis. Carotenoids arelocated inside thylakoid membrane. Other type of plants is those with C4pathway and photosynthesis take place in mesophyll cells. C3 and C4 plant havedifferent chloroplast organization. C4 plants are divided into three differentgroup based on reaction catalyzing enzyme and these also vary in chloroplast organization.
Another class of plastid is chromoplast that do not contain chlorophyll buthave ability to store carotenoids. They impart color other than green that canbe red, yellow and orange. They do not dominantly express in leaves but givecolor to fruits, flowers and vegetables. Chromoplast do not have fully developmembrane system but can produce and store the carotenoids. Chromoplast vary insize and shape and in intracellular properties. The chromoplast can be derivefrom leukoplast and chloroplast. If chromoplast develop from the chlorophyllthen thylakoid membrane is degraded.
There are different classes of chromoplastbut most common is globulous. Plastid die through programmed cell death calledas plastid senescence. All organs and organelles have their own time of death.Leaf dies because of chlorophyll lack or absence of necessary proteins andenzymes. Chlorosis is a condition in which plant lack the chlorophyll due toany stress such nutrient deficiency. As the chlorophyll degraded, carotenoidsalso degraded but as compared to chlorophyll, carotenoids are more stable.Evergreen plants have plastid that at the end of vegetative year change intochromoplast. There are plants that contain chloroplast for long years butseasonal changes also occur in them.
Tetrapyrrole are very important inbiochemical reactions and use in food industry as additive. BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYThere are variety ofpathway for synthesis but two majors are shemin and beale pathway. Sheminpathway along with plants also present in animals and bacteria. The substratefor this reaction is succinyl-CoA and glycine and reaction is catalyzed bymultiple enzymes, one of them is ALA synthase and product is alpha-amino-beta-cetoadipicacid. ALA-synthase is present in chloroplast. Beale pathway is multistepprocess that occur in chloroplast with the substrate glutamate andalpha-ketoglutarate.
First of all, glutamyl-tRNA complex is formed that latertransformed into glutamate-I-semialdehyde that later transformed into sigmaALA. ALA undergo several steps to form protoporphyrin. Firstly, ALA transformedinto porphobilinogen that then transform into uroporphyrinogen. In the presenceof several enzymes, uroporphyrinogen into coporphyrinogen that give the majorproduct protoporphyrogen. Protoporphyrin is transformed intoprotochlorophyllide through insertion of iron and magnesium and thenesterification lead to formation of isocyclic ring and finally chlorophyll a isformed.
Chlorophyll a synthesize in the presence of light. However, chlorophyllb synthesizes in dark from chlorophyll a. Mohammad Pessarakli – 1996 The chlorophyll a and b havestructures differences. Chlorophyll a is C20 molecule that has phytol chain and7-methyl. Chlorophyll a use as model for other chlorophyll structurecomparison. Chlorophyll b has 7-formyl instead of 7-methyl.H Scheer – ?1991