Body need to adjust their daily calorie intake in

    Body mass can be measured bysimply standing on a set of weighing scales, unfortunately this only gives youa numeric figure of how heavy your body is.

It doesn’t differentiate betweenfat mass and muscle mass, so the overall accuracy of body mass can be misunderstood.When the body mass index was introduced in the 1830s by Lambert Adolphe andJacque Quetelet it was designed to estimate a healthy weight by a simplecalculation (Daniel Bubnis, 2017). 3.

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2       Measuring Body Mass     Nutrient Age 65+ Protein 53g Iron 9mg Zinc 9.5mg Vitamin A 700mg Folate 200mg Vitamin C 40mcg Salt 6g With only a small change froman adult, older adults again will need to adjust their daily calorie intake inline with the level of activity that they are doing. Generally, as adultsbecome older and into their frail years, they establish a more sedentarylifestyle. Unless there are any other significant ill heath, older adults tendto continue to eat in the way in which they always have, usually 3 main mealsper day, to include a good amount of meat and vegetables, and a lower number ofsugary snacks.  OlderAdults Aged 65+The consequences of an adultseating the wrong foods can have a serious impact on their health.

According toresults from Health Survey England 2013, 41% men and 33% of women areoverweight. Being overweight/obese can cause Cardiovascular Disease, Type 2 Diabetes,Stroke, High blood Pressure and hypertension. Pressure is also put on jointsand limbs. Many of these chronic diseases can be prevented by maintaining ahealthy weight and lifestyle.Nutrients important for womenare Iron, Calcium and Folate, whereas men need to concentrate on Selenium(mineral for immune system) and Lycopene (Found in watermelon, Red grapefruit& tomato products) for protecting against prostate cancer.

Excess Proteinin the body can put systems in the body under pressure and can cause toxicketones if protein make up 30% of your calorie intake. Keytosis uses theproteins and converts it into sugars. Excess keytones leads to loss and sodiumfrom the body.   Nutrient Aged19-65 Protein 55g Iron 14.8mg Zinc 9.

5mg Vitamin A 700mcg Folate 200mcg Vitamin C 40mcg Salt 6g The requirement in adulthooddoesn’t change from an older adolescent, except in pregnancy and increasedactivity level. An adult diet provides enough of most nutrients, but still has alow intake of vitamins, and energy from fatty acid is higher than therecommended as is salt and fibre intake. (FSA nutrient and food basedguidelines for UK institutions, 2007)AdulthoodAged 18-65Unfortunately, this age groupis also a high risk of developing eating disorders Eg Anorexia Nervosa, BulimiaNervosa, Binge and Emotional Eating. In 2013 34% of boys and 35% wereoverweight. Anorexia Nervosa peaks between the ages of 15-19, mainly in girlsbut 11% are male.

  Nutrient Age 11-14 Age 15-18 Protein 42g 55g Iron 14.8mg 14.8mg Zinc 9mg 9.5mg Vitamin A 600mg 700mg Folate 200mcg 200mcg Vitamin C 35mg 40mg Salt 6g 6g  More Iron is needed to growand for muscle development. Once a girl starts menstruation she will requiremore iron than a boy of the same age. – A lack of Iron can lead to anaemia.

More calcium is needed for increase in bone mass. It is recommended that boyshave 1000mg and girls have 800mg per day to ensure continued healthy, strongbones. Failure to have the recommended amount of calcium could cause futurebone health problems and a higher risk of fractures.As adolescents continue togrow they require more energy, protein and calcium to allow growth anddevelopment, but also for the increase in activity. Many in this age group havea low intake of vitamins especially Vitamin A, Iron, Calcium, Zinc and Iodine.AdolescentsAged 11-18Ensuring that children aregetting the required amount, ensures they are getting all the nutrients theyneed. Failing to get these nutrients can lead to health problems Eg Kwashiorkor–  Disease caused by lack of protein. Itcauses muscle wasting, water retention (Oedema) Hair and skin lose colour andskin becomes scaly.

Marasmus is caused by lack of calories and protein, causingthe body to waste away. Children are noticeably skinny rather that swollen likeKwashiorkor. It was recently reported thatchildren aged 4-10 are still exceeding the daily recommended allowance ofsugar, currently making up 13% of their diet, over double the advised amount of5% (Gov.

uk, 2016).   Nutrient Age 4-6 Age 7-10 Protein 20g 28g Iron 6mg 9mg Zinc 6.5mg 7mg Vitamin A 400mcg 500mcg Folate 100mcg 150mcg Vitamin C 30mg 30mf Salt 3g 5g It is recommended thatchildren should eat the following guideline amount of food per day (FSAnutrient and food based guidelines for UK institutions, 2007).

Children grow rapidly and arevery active. Their diet needs to provide energy and the right nutrients toensure correct growth and a healthy body weight. Snacks like crisps, biscuitsand sweets should be eaten in moderation, and foods such as yoghurt, milk andfruit/raw vegetables should be offered instead of the sugary snacks.ChildrenAged 3-10Vitamins–Essential for the functioning of the body, including cell function, growth anddevelopment. There are 13 essential vitamins that can only come from a widevaried diet. Fats – Wecan not live without fat, we need it to help prevent disease. Too much fat cancause obesity, heart problems, high blood & cholesterol levels.

Protein-  An essential nutrient of the body, without itthe body would be unable to repair muscle or tissue.Carbohydrate – Whenour diet is low in carbohydrate, our body uses its fat reserve as a fuelsource. To maintain a healthy body, ahealthy balanced diet is required, by consuming the correct amount of nutrientsand eating a varied diet.3.1Dietary requirements at Key life stages      Food Group What do we use them for What food we find them in Picture Carbohydrate Functioning of the immune system. Provide energy. Required for physical activity, brain function and for our organs to operate Bread, Pasta, Potatoes Protein Builds up muscle & bone tissue.

Plays a very important role in the growth and repair of the muscle and tissues. Meat & Fish Eggs, cheese Milk, yoghurt Beans, Lentils & Peas     Fats Our bodies require a small amount of fats, to give us energy. We cannot live without them. Good fats help our bodies functions, and prevent disease Biscuits, Cakes, palm oil, Fatty cuts of meat, butter, ghee, Hard Cheese. Healthy Fats: Avocado, Nuts, Chia Seeds, Dark Chocolate     Vitamins – Fat Soluble Don’t Need to Eat Everyday     Vitamin A Vital for Vision & healthy skin. Chicken, Eggs, Fish, Apple, Melon, Carrots, Broccoli, Cheese, Milk & Butter.

Vitamin D Healthy bones & teeth. Absorbs and maintains the calcium levels. Promotes the calcification of bones & teeth. Salmon, Fish Oils, Peppers, Liver & Dairy products Vitamin E (Known as Tocopherol) Antioxidant.

Helps in the production of red blood cells. Olive Oil, Avocado, nuts, Whole cereal, Eggs, Sprouts, Milk & Butter. Vitamin K Main role is clotting of blood, maintenance of strong bones Liver, leafy green vegetables Vitamins – Water Soluble Don’t Store in the Body, Need to Eat Everyday     Vitamin C (ascorbic Acid) Boosts the immune system.

Associated with protein metabolism. Oranges, Blackcurrants, Spinach, Green & Red Peppers, Seafood & Strawberries Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Associated with amino acid metabolism Egg Yolk, Beans, Yeast, White Fish & Peanuts     Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) DNA syntheses, Formation of myelin Found in almost foods of animal origin Folic Acid (Folate)   Liver, Leafy Green Vegetables, Brown Rice, Nuts & milk Minerals       Calcium Healthy bones & teeth Cheese, Eggs, Milk & Sardines   Iron Formation of haemoglobin in red blood cells Liver, Red Meat, Dried Fruit, Pulses   Potassium Needed for muscle contraction, heart function. Turns carbohydrates into energy. Fruit & vegetables   Zinc Needed for metabolism. Growth in pregnancies, children & adolescence.     Water All our cells, organs and tissues use water to regulate temperature. Water is used to transport nutrients. Our body loses water through breathing, sweating and digestion.

Very important to keep the body hydrated. Makes up 83% of blood & 75% of our brain. Drinking Water, Juice, Milk, Tea, Coffee, Soup. Fruit & vegetable          2.

1Constituent food groups of a balanced diet              Mouth Digestion begins when food is put in the mouth (Ingestion)…The food is chewed and broken down by the teeth and mixed with salivary amylase formed in the salary glands, to form a bolus. This is Mechanical digestion. At this stage the salivary amylase starts to digest starch.   Salivary Glands Saliva helps to lubricate the food and the mouth. Also used to clean the mouth. Saliva is made up of 99.4% of water, whilst the rest is salivary amylase and Lysozyme.   The salivary amylase is natural to slightly alkaline.

It starts to break down complex sugars and starches.   Lysozyme is responsible for keeping the bacteria at a suitable level. Stomach J- Shaped –  Salivary amylase stops working due to the acidic environment.     3 Areas Fundus – Top, Body – Main Working Area Pylorus – Bottom.   The Mucosa is arranged in folds (Rugae) this continues to break the bolus up into small pieces. – Mechanical Digestion. The Rugae folds increases the surface area to release more gastric juices.

The bolus mixes with gastric juices and produces Chyme, through Chemical Digestion.   Within Deep pits, Oxyntic/Parietal cells produce hydrochloric acid lowering the pH to 2.0-3.0. This enables the right pH for pepsin to work, to digest protein, and rennin is produced to curdle Milk.   Pepsin breaks down the peptide bonds in the protein chains into polypeptides.

Exopeptidase enzymes break polypeptides into amino acids by breaking down the chains from the ends.   Mucous cells secretes a mucus (Alkaline buffer) to protect the stomach lining from the acid, to stop it from digesting itself!   The stomach is temporary storage, allowing digestive enzymes i.e Pepsin to work.   Chemical digestion – Allowing for the pepsins to break down the protein into polypeptides   Mechanical digestion – Stomach acts as a churn to mix the bolus with gastric juices. ‘Churning effect’ created by the Gastric Muscle. Limited absorption of simple chemicals ie Water, Salts & Simple sugars.

  Ghrelin – Hormone released by the stomach that tells the brain when we are hungry or not, when food is eaten and the stomach is stretched, it then tells the brain we are full   Small Intestine Small Intestine – 3 Main Areas ( Duodenum, Jejunum & Illeum).   Key role in Absorption. Internal structure is increased by circular folds called Villi, this provides more surface area for absorption of nutrients. Each individual Villi has microvilli attached to them as this further increases the surface area to break down the chime and absorb nutients.   The chyme enters the small intestine where it mixes with Pancreatic Juices, Bile and intestinal juice. Chemical digestion of Protein, carbohydrates and fat takes place.                                        Pancreatic juices are secreted into the duodenum (which are alkaline pH 8) by the endocrine cells in the wall of the duodenum, along with Bile this continue digestion.

  The Pancreatic juices contain several enzymes. – The Alkaline intestinal juice raises the pH of the contents.   Endopeptidase enzymes – Trypsin & Chymotrypsin (inactive enzymes) Continue the digestion of Protein, cutting the chain of amino acids into shorter sections – Convert polypepsides to tripeptides, and amino acides. – Only activated upon their arrival in the Duodenum, this would otherwise digest the Pancreas.   Exopeptidase enzymes – Completes the digestion of protein by breaking the amino acid chains at the end.

Starts at the ends, breaks off one by one, so that it can be absorbed through the Villi into the blood stream – Assists with the Growth & repair of tissues. The pancreatic juices neutralises the chyme (Making it alkaline) to enable the pancreatic enzymes to work. Once neutralised Pepsin stops working. The pancreatic enzymes continue to digest protein, cutting the chains of amino acids into shorter chains. The enzymes produced by the lining complete the digestive process.   Pancreatic Enzymes. – Breaks down Carbohydrates, Starches & Sugars. The Pancreatic Alpha Amylase (Normal Level is 0-137 U/L) – Converts starch to maltose.

Maltase breaks down Maltose to Glucose. Sucrase – Converts sucrose to glucose and Fructose (Fruit Sugars) Lactase – Converts lactose to glucose and galactose (Milk Sugars) Pancreatic Lipase  – Converts fats & oils to fatty acids and Glycerol – These are too big and have to be broken apart. Lipase breaks down the bonds.   This completes the chemical digestion of food.   Bile  -Yellow /Brown substance.

Not an enzyme. Secreted by the liver and stored in the Gall Bladder The. pH is around 8. Bile is made up of water, mineral salts, mucus, bile salts, bile pigments & cholesterol. Enters via the bile duct from the liver.

Emulsifies fats & neutralising the stomach acid. Allows excretion of cholesterol and bile pigments – helps bind cholesterol. Large Intestine Loops around the small intestine. Main Function is the reabsorption of water and the formation of solid faeces. Small amount of minerals, vitamins & salt are absorbed.   Normally harmless bacteria synthesise Vitamin K and Folic Acid.

Can become pathogenic when entering another part of the body.   4 Sections – Ascending Colon – Extends upwards, curves to become the Transverse Colon – Extends across the duodenum, to by the spleen, forms the Splenic Flexure and curves to the … Descending Colon – Down the left-hand side of the abdominal cavity, leading to the Sigmoid Colon – S Shaped curve, continues to become the rectum.   Peristalsis doesn’t continuously run in the colon, but there are ‘waves’ of strong contractions, called mass movement (Approx.

every 2 hours), to move the faeces along ready for elimination. Rectum Usually empty until faecal matter arrives from the colon.  Defaecation occurs by a reflex action which is involuntary in small children, but becomes a learned response by the brain, so that we defaecate when convenient. Anus Defaecation occurs from the anus.

Involuntary contraction of the muscle in the rectum, and relaxation of the Internal Anal Sphincter (Involuntary) moves the faeces along the small anal canal, the External Anal Sphincter (Voluntary) allows defaecation to take place conveniently  1.1Structure and function of the Digestive System

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