British Literature I- Final Exam

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Last updated: May 9, 2019

Elizabeth
Queen of England during the Spanish Armada attack (England wins); never married, therefore the Tudor line ends with her

Sonnet
a verse form consisting of 14 lines with a fixed rhyme scheme; two types: Petrarchen (Octave and Sestet), Shakespearean (3 Quatrains and a Couplet)

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Sonnet Sequence
Used in the Shakespearean orm: problem-complication-counter argument-conclusion

Stella
The star that Astrophil loves

Astrophil
“star lover”, he loves Stella

Orsino
A powerful nobleman in the country of Illyria; He loves Olivia, but doesn’t realize that she doesn’t love him

Olivia
A wealthy, beautiful, and noble Illyrian lady; She loves Cesario, but doesn’t know that Cesario is actually Viola in disguise

Viola
A young woman who gets washed ashore in a ship wreck and disguises herself as a man to get a job; Olivia falls in love with her and Viola falls in love with Orsino

Sebastian
Viola’s lost twin brother; is mistaken for Cesario and falls in love with Olivia

Sir Toby Belch
Olivia’s uncle; live’s with Olivia, but is very rowdy and has poor behavior

Sir Andrew Aguecheck
A friend of Sir Toby’s; attempts to court Olivia

Maria
Olivia’s clever, daring young waiting-gentlewoman; writes the fake love note that Malvolio believes is from Olivia

Malvolio
The straitlaced steward in the household of Lady Olivia; is tricked by Maria, Sir Toby, and Sir Andrew

Feste
The clown, or fool, of Olivia’s household; connects the upper and lower quartets and speaks the truth

Comedy
light and humorous drama with a happy ending; about hiding the truth- usually something embarassing

Epigram
a witty saying

Conceit
Extended metaphor

Cavalier Poetry
Witty and polished lyrics of courtships and gallantry; poets were followers of Ben Jonson

Metaphysical Poetry
Devotional poetry that focuses on intense spirituality often featuring conceits; notable poet: George Herbert

Puritan
a member of a group of Protestants that demanded he simplification of doctrine and worship, and greater strictness in religious discipline; became a powerful political party during the 17th century

Authorized Version of the Bible
“Great Bible”; first authorized Bible; written by Henry VIII

Stuart Succession (1603)
James I, the cousin of Elizabeth I, becomes king; England and Scotland grow together politically

James I
6th king of Scotland and 1st king of England; comes into power after Elizabeth I

Charles I
2nd son of James I; disbanded Parliament and formed an army against it- lost and was executed

Masque
allegorical story with spectical; Ex: Faerie Queene

Model Army
created by Oliver Cromwell during the civil war against the King’s army over Parliament; promotion through achievement, not status; everyone wears uniforms- red coats

Oliver Cromwell
created the new model army; temporarily overthrew the monarchy and turned England into a commonwealth and ruled as Lord Protector

Civil War
between the new model army and the King’s army; King’s army defeated and Charles I was executed

Closing of the Theatres (1642)
Puritans were in power and felt entertainment was sinful; stayed closed for 18 years

Blank Verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter; used in Paradise Lost

“Justify the ways of God to Man”
quote from Book I of Paradise Lost; elucidate the conflict between God’s eternal foresight and free will

Restoration (1660)
Charles II comes into power; reopened the playhouses

Charles II
King of England during the Restoration; pensioned by the King of France, creates the 3-piece suit, idea of patronizing leisure (opera, theatre, vacation, city of Bath)

Great Fire (1666)
fire that lasted for four days; destroyed most of medieval London and 87 churches, including st.

Paul’s Cathedral

Glorious Revolution (1688)
Overthrow of James II by William of Orange; established the British Constitution

James II
King of England during the Glorious Revolution; wanted to change Britain back to Catholicism

William III & Mary II
Ruled as a joint monarchy following that of James II; created the English Bill of RIghts

Sir Christopher Wren
Architect who rebuilt about 60 churches after the Great Fire; wanted to change the street patterns of Lonson

Coffee/Tea Houses
circulated political ideas; the Daily Courant (1st newspaper) most likely to come out of a coffee house

Test Acts
Created by Parliament to keep Catholics out of the governement; had to renounce there Catholic Church and claim the Anglican Church as the one, true Church

Polite Society
Looks down on those who who don’t know proper rules; creates a comedy of manners

Social Class
nobles, lords, gentlefolk, shop keepers and industrialists, everyone else; where you stood in the social rankings dictated who you could interact with

Satire
Literary act of diminishing or derogating a subject by making it ridiculous and evoking toward it attitudes of amusement, contempt, scorn, or indignation; creates the mock epic

Heroic Couplet
a couplet consisting of two rhymed lines of iambic pentamenter and written in an elevated style; Mac Flecknoe

Novel
A book of long narrative in literary prose; based on early modern romance and in the tradition of the novella

Oroonoko
a short work of prose fiction by Aphra Behn; Aphra Behn is the earliest woman writer to earn a career by her pen

Mac Flecknoe
poem written by John Dryden; result of disagreements between Dryden and Shadwell, such as the feelings toward Ben Jonson

James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth
the illegititmate son of King Charles II and his mistress; declared himself the true king of England and atempted to overthrow his uncle, James II

Belinda
hero of Pope’s Rape of the Lock; she is a society woman

Cave of Spleen
Place where Umbriel the faerie goes to get a bag of tears, sobs, and despair; the spleen is where ill-temperment was suppossedly found

The Baron
Villain of the Rape of the Lock; has the minor offensive of cutting a lock of hair from Belinda so that he may take it as a trophy

Lilliput
The island where Gulliver is shipwrecked; suppossed to represent Great Britain

Blefuscu
Island that offers refuge to those fleeing Liliputian persecution; suppossd to represent France

Literary Criticism
the informed analysis and evaluation of literature; example: Pope’s An Essay on Criticism

Hanoverian Succession (1714)
King George I takes the thrown; also elector of Germany

Battle of Culloden (1746)
Battle between George II and his grandson- trying to overthrow and gain control with Catholic/Scottish support; last battle fought on British soil

Bath
Resort city in England; very fashionable to be seen there during the summer season especially

London
Capital of England; where the monarchy and Parliament reside

Country Houses & Gardens
Became very popular among the middle and upper classes; showed wealth and buying into polite society

Dr. Charles Burney
English music historian; father of Frances Burney

Sir Robert Walpole
England 1st Prime Minister; position created because George I wanted to stay in Germany

Robert Adam
Scottish architect; designed Putney Bridge

David Garrick
English actor; famous for bringing Shakespeare back to the theatre

Epistolary Novel
A novel composed wholly or primarily of letters. Unfolds through the written documents passed from person to person; example: Evelina

Evelina
the main character of Frances Burney’s Evelina; she is a girl trying to break into polite society

Lord Orville
A very polite gentleman; He falls in love with Evelina and they eventually get married

Sir Clement Willoughby
A nobleman who courts Evelina; Evelina dislikes him, but tolerates him because he has favor with Captain Mirvan

Captain Mirvan
A retired Navy captain; introduces Evelina to polite society

Maria Mirvan
Captain Mirvan’s wife; treats Evelina as her own daughter and shows her how to behave in polite society

Mr. Arthur Villars
Evelina’s gaurdian; he is possessive of Evelina

Mr. Lovel
The rejected dance partner of Evelina; Evelina makes a large faux pas by not dancing with him

Lord Merton
Lady Louisa’s fiance; they hate each other

Mrs.

Selwyn

Evelina’s neighbor; Evelina’s accompanies her to the resort town of Clifton Heights

Lady Louisa Larpent
Lord Orville’s sister; she is very annoying and impatient

Mr. Branghton
Madame Duval’s nephew; only working-class character, he hates spending money

Mr. Smith
Madame Duval’s brother;

Madame Duvel
Evelina’s grandmother; example of how not to act in society

Mr. Macartney
Evelina’s half-brother; he shows Evelina how she could’ve ended up

Caroline Belmont
Evelina’s deceased mother; good example of what not to do in life

Sir John Belmont
Evelina’s father; he doesn’t recognize her as his daughter until the end, but gives her a family

A Footrace of Elderly Women
from Evelina, when the aristocratic men chose 80 year old women to run a race; showed that aristocrats were cruel

A Monkey
in Evelina, the captain dresses up a monkey as Lovell; it is a trick to make fun of Lovell

False Highwaymen

Country Churchyard
Place where would gather before and after church service, usually surrounded by grave markers; famously shown in Thomas Grey’s Elegy in a Country Churchyars

Castaway
A poem by William Cowper; forces of nature are powerful and beautiful, human struggles against nature end in failure

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