Ch. 13 & 14

Topics: EconomicsTrade

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Last updated: April 24, 2019

In the colonial period, North America was principally divided between ____, ____, and ___
England, France, and Spain

Huguenots were French Protestants influenced by ___
John Calvin

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Spanish and Portuguese kings appointed ___ to help them rule their empires in the New World
viceroys

England’s primary interest in the New World was ___ for new settlements
land

Enslaved Africans were obtained by Europeans from African ___ merchants
slave

The Aztec rulers of Mexico fought against the forces of which Spanish warrior?
Hernan Cortes

The __ in 1494 gave Spain control of almost all of the Americas
Treaty of Tordesillas

Why did slave owners in the sixteenth century discourage enslaved peoples from having offspring?
They believed that buying a new enslaved person was less expensive than raising a child.

Colonial America was divided into all the following social classes except ____
peninsulares

Which of the following is NOT a reason why enslaved people from Africa were needed in the Caribbean Islands?
Spain respected the Native Americans and did not want to enslave them.

In 1526 King Afonso of Congo wrote a letter to the king of Portugal describing the slave trade’s ____ of Congo
depopulation

European expansion was driven by all of the following except fear of ____ empires
African

Spain’s primary interest in the New World was ___ and other precious ___
gold and other precious metals

By the end of King Philip II’s reign, Spain had become the most ___ empire in the world.
populous

James I of England believed in the divine right of kings, which is the idea that kings receive their power from ___ and are responsible only to ___
God, God

Which of the following were Protestant in England who were inspired by Calvinist ideas?
Puritans

Olivier Cromwell’s defeat of the king’s forces allowed him to take control of England and eventually establish a ____ dictatorship
military

Absolutism is a system of government in which a ruler holds total ___
power

Louis XIV maintained complete authority as monarch by distracting the nobles and royal princes with ____, to keep them out of politics.
court life

The style of painting known as ___ reflected a search for power.

baroque

The work of William Shakespeare is perhaps the best example of ____ literature
Elizabethan

What was the “Glorious Revolution”?
the invasion of England by William of Orange, who overthrew James II with almost no bloodshed

Which act brought an end to the Holy Roman Empire as a political entity?
the Peace of Westphalia

Elizabethan playwrights such as William Shakespeare generally wrote their plays for what social group?
all classes

The Edict of Nantes recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France, and gave the Huguenots the right to ___ and to enjoy all ___ privileges
worship, political

The art produced during the ____ movement reflected the tension of religious upheaval and the spirituality of religious revival
Mannerism

Beginning in 1420, Prince Henry the ____ sponsored Portuguese fleets that explored the southern coast of West Africa.
navigator

In the ____ system, Native Americans had to pay tribute and provide labor to Spanish landowners.
encomieda

According to ___, the prosperity of a nation depended on a large supply of either gold or silver bullion.
mercantilism

____ ____ was the pattern of trade connecting Europe, Africa and the American continents
Triangular Trade

The Thirty Year’s War began in ____, a large region in the Holy Roman Empire located between France and Poland
Germany

The Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were based on the ideas of ____
John Locke

The first Russian ruler to take the title of czar was ____
Ivan IV

The English Parliament restored the monarchy in 1660 in the person of ____
Charles II

Identify the four components that Europeans believed provided the basis and rational for a great empire.
power, land, money, and spreading the gospel

How successful were Europeans in their attempts to create empires?
They were extremely successful. They came to dominate the world.

How did Spain view the Native Americans?
Spain saw them as conquered people. In result of that, Spain forced them into labor.

How did France view the Native Americans?
France saw them as rulers of the New World. In result of that, France made treaties and allies with them.

How did England view the Native Americans?
England saw them as barbarians. In result of that, England has many conflicts with them and also had their tribes separated.

Contrast the political thinking of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke
Thomas Hobbes thought that if everyone was under one power the political and social order would be great in the society.

John Locke disagreed, He believes that everyone should have their own individual rights.

How did the concepts of the Divine Right Monarch and Absolutism lead to stability in society, but also led to corruption and despotism?
No one was allowed to challenge the king’s actions because his rule came from God (Divine Right). So, that meant there was little room for disagreement. This system also led to corruption because there is no check on the king’s power.

Also, the government rulers could get away with anything as long as it didn’t challenge the king.

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