Lorenzo de’ Medici
known as “the Magnificent” represented the Renaissance ideal he was a clever politician and generous patron of the arts
a Florentine who lived in the 1300’s was a Renaissance humanisthe found and assembled a library of Greek and Roman manuscriptsthe works of Cicero, Homer, and Virgil became known to Western Europeansalso wrote literature of his own (Sonnets to Laura—love poems inspired by a woman he admired from a distance)
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Leonardo da Vinci
born in 1452he was a genius for invention (he drew designs for helicopters, under sea boats centuries before they were invented)He was expert in: botany, anatomy, optics music, architecture, engineering, painting, sculpture Famous works: Mona Lisa, The Last Supper
a genius sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poetmade the Pieta out of marblesculptor of Mary holding the dead Christmade statue of David which recalls the harmony and the grace of ancient Greek traditionpainted a mural on the Sistine Chapel in Rome which depicted the biblical history of the world. (he laid on his back suspended from the ceiling for 4 years to paint it. Made the Dome for St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome
studied the works of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo and painted with a blended Christian and classical stylemost known for doing the Madonna, the mother of JesusHis painting “The School of Athen’s” was a gathering of the great thinkers and scientists like: Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, and the Arab philosopher Averroes. He also included Michelangeo, Leonardo di Vinci and himself.
an authorwrote a handbook called “The Book of the Courtier” describes manners, skills, learning, and virtues that a member of the court should have. The ideal man is athletic, played a musical instrument, and knows literature and history—is not arrogantThe ideal woman is graceful, kind, lively, but reserved, beautiful
served in Florence as a diplomat—observed kings and princes in foreign courtswrote “The Prince” in 1513combined his personal experience of politics with his knowledge of the past to offer a guide to rulers on how to gain and maintain power said “the end justifies the means”he urged rulers to use whatever methods were necessary to achieve their goals
financial supporter of the arts Artists learned their craft and produced great works due to patron’s support
an intellectual movement Based on the study of classical culture It focused on worldly subjects rather than on the religious issues humanist scholars were pious Christians who used their wisdom of the ancients to increase understanding of their own times
the subjects taught in ancient Greek and Roman schools main areas of study were: grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history (based on Greek and Roman texts)
new technique to show realism making distant objects smaller than those close to the viewer made the painting appear to be three-dimensional
What conditions in Italy contributed to the emergence of the Renaissance?
The Renaissance started due to a renewed interest in ancient Roman empire. There were many things to look at from ancient Rome such as architecture, statues, coins, and inscriptions.
City-states like Florence, Milan, Venice, and Genoa were prosperous trade and manufacturing areas. Rome and Naples were also part of the revival. The wealthy merchant class was very interested in culture and stressed education and achievements. A family called the Medici’s were very rich and put much of their money into art by being a financial supporter.
Identify the concerns and attitudes emphasized during the Renaissance. The Renaissance was a time of creativity and change.
The Renaissance was a time of creativity and change. People had an interest in classical learning of Greece and Rome. Renaissance thinkers focused on the “human experience” and individual achievement. The Renaissance ideal was the person who had multiple talents in many fields. There was also a spirit of adventure and curiosity.
How did Renaissance art reflect humanist concerns?
Renaissance artists would portray religious figures such as Jesus and Mary, but used backgrounds in Greece and Rome.
They also painted well known people of the day that had individual achievements. They also revived classical forms that had been done in ancient times such as when Donatello sculpted a life size soldier on horseback. Something like that hadn’t been done since ancient times. They also used techniques to represent humans and landscapes in a very realistic way.
Why might powerful rulers and wealthy business people choose to become patrons of the arts during the Renaissance?
Since the people considered the accomplishments of the individual to be the way to show success, it was important to become wealthy and powerful. They believed that their money should be used to show that they were wealthy and this could be done by commissioning artists and being a patron to them. As the artists produced art and architecture, they could display it and this added more to their power.
intellectual movement tried to apply the wisdom of the ancients to the Renaissance world
Renaissance author wrote a guide for members of the court.
During the Renaissance, this type of person provided financial backing for the arts.
technique in painting makes distant objects smaller than those close to the viewer
Leonardo da Vinci
multitalented man dissected corpses to learn how to paint human anatomy correctly
Renaissance art reflected the humanist interest in:individual achievementgovernment by kingssocialismall three
In their effort to achieve realism, Renaissance painters and sculptors gave great attention topublic opinionmedieval artlandscapeanatomy
During the Renaissance, women artistskept their work secretwere nonexistentproduced many works of poor qualitypetitioned the government for an artist’s school
kept their work secret
Renaissance architects favoredthe Gothic styleChines stylesthe Greek and Roman stylemedieval architecture
the Greek and Roman style
How rulers could gain and maintain power was the focus of The Prince, a book by Francesco PetrarchFilippo BrunelleschiNiccolo Machiavelli
served Florence as a diplomat–observed kings and princes in foreign courtsstudied ancient Roman historyThe Prince, published in 1513–he combined his personal experience of politics with his knowledge of the past to offer a guide to rulers on how to gain and maintain power.
Machiavelli did not give LEADERSHIP the qualities of high ideals.He looked at real rulers such as the Medici’s (age of ruthless politics)
the end justifies the meansHe urged rulers to use whatever methods were necessary to achieve their goals. Getting results was more important than keeping promises.
known as the “German Leonardo” he traveled to Italy in 1494 to study techniques of the Italian masters he made engravings to make prints portrayed religious upheaval his art spread Italian Renaissance ideas to his homeland
Jan van Eyck
Jan and Hubert van Eyck were Flemish painters They portrayed townspeople as well as religious scenes They developed oil paint Northern artists used the oil paints to produce strong colors and a hard surface that could last for centuries
French humanist He was a monk, physician, Greek scholar, and author Wrote “Gargantua and Pantagruel” about the adventures of two gentle giants It was a comic tale about travel and war, but it offered his opinions on religion, education, and other subjects
English poet and playwright Wrote 37 plays between 1590 and 1613 More than 1700 new vocab words came from Shakespeare’s works (ex. Bedroom, lonely, generous, gloomy, heartsick, hurry, and sneak) Examples of his work: Twelfth night (comedy), Richard III (history), Romeo and Juliet (love and feud)
Miguel de Cervantes
Renaissance in Spain during 1600s led to great works Cervantes wrote–Don Quixote is a tale that mocks the romantic notions of medieval chivalry The novel is about Don Quixote (knight) and Sancho Panza (faithful servant)
1456–Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany printed the 1st complete edition of the Bible using the PRINTING PRESS and PRINTING INKSwithin 20 years, the printing revolution would start
a form of art the artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid the plate is used to make prints
the everyday languageErasmus had the Bible translated into everyday language
an ideal society Thomas More wrote book called Utopia which described an ideal society in which men and women live in peace and harmony.
How did Durer help bring the Renaissance to northern Europe? He became known as the “German Leonardo” which is in reference to Leonardo di Vinci.
Albrecht Durer would travel to Italy in 1494 where he would go to study the techniques that were used by the Italian masters.
When he went back to Germany, he used the techniques he learned in paintings and etchings. The etchings were used to make prints. He used his art and essays he wrote to spread the Italian Renaissance to his homeland of Germany. He became known as the “German Leonardo” which is in reference to Leonardo di Vinci.
What themes did Erasmus and More raise in their writings?
Desiderius Erasums and Thomas More were friends. Erasmus felt that an individual’s duty was to be open-minded and have good will towards others. He was a priest and was disturbed by the corruption in the Church so he wanted reform. Eraasmus wrote In Praise of Folly which was a book that used humor to expose the ignorance and immoral behavior of the people of the day.
His friend, More also wanted social reform. He wrote Utopia which described an ideal society in which men and women would live together in peace and harmony. No one would be idle, but instead would be educated. Justice would be used to end crime.
What were three effects of the printing revolution? Johann Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany printed the first complete edition of the Bible using the fist printing press and inks in 1456 which started the beginning of the printing revolution
Printed books became more readily available because they were easier to produce and cheaper to make. More people were able to learn to read because they could get books to read.
Readers were able to learn things about medicine, law, astrology, and mining as well as many new ideas. Reading would make more people more educated.
His work enriched the English language
Bruegel painted scenes of daily life (instead of religious scenes.
Used vibrant colorsFlemish painter in the 1500’s
Miguel de Cervantes
Cervantes produced the best known work of Spanish Renaissance literature
A complete edition of the Bible was first printed with movable metal type by Johann Gutenberg
What factor, besides the plague, delayed the Renaissance in northern Europe?lack of patronslack of economic growthlack of gifted artists and scholarslack of interest in learning
lack of economic growth
Why was Albrecht Durer called the “German Leonardo”?he was an excellent painterhe was a German scholarhe had traveled to Italyhe had wide-ranging interests
he had wide-ranging interests
For what purpose did Sir Thomas More use his writings?to condemn Renaissance moralsto praise the Churchto call for social reformsto call for reforms in the Church
to call for social reforms
Who formed a new audience for works of literature in the vernacular?the middle-classthe scholar-gentryEuropean monarchspeasants
Which Renaissance writer had the most far-reaching influence?CervantesShakespeareRabelaisBruegel
Shakespeare. His plays are still read around the world today. His words enriched the English dictionary
How did the printing press affect Europe?The price of books rose to pay for the new technologyMore people learned to read and writeBooks were available to only a limited fewTrade declined with the increase in books
More people learned to read and write.
In the 1500’s, there were calls for reform in the Church The calls for reform would shatter Christian unity This movement was called the Protestant Reformation
Martin LutherGerman monk and professor of theology
He triggered revolt against the Church in 1517 Wrote 95 theses (arguments) against indulgences. He argued that they had no basis in the Bible, the pope had no authority to release souls from Purgatory, & that Christians could only be saved through faith He posted his 95 theses on the Wittenberg’s All Saints Church door
Peace of Augsburg
it was signed in 1555 it allowed each prince to decide which religion would be followed in his land (either Catholic or Lutheran
challenged the Catholic Church further than Luther logical and razor-sharp mind his ideas impacted the Reformation trained as a priest and lawyer 1536 published the Institutes of the Christian Religion (his religious beliefs)
French Calvinistin France–wars raged between French Calvinists and the Catholics
Scotland, a Calvinist preacher who led a religious rebellion.
Scottish Protestant’s overthrew their Catholic queen and set up the Scottish Presbyterian Church
a lessening of the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory clergy sold indulgences in order to finance their church projects indulgences were given in the Middle Ages for doing good deeds, but now it changed into costing a fee (or giving a gift to the Church) Many Christian’s opposed and protested the indulgences costing money
give up one’s views the Church asked for Martin Luther to recant the 95 Theses
Calvin taught the idea of predestination God had long ago determined who would gain salvation
Why did many Christians call for Church reform?
How did Martin Luther’s ideas differ from those of the Catholic church?
He was outraged by the idea that Church clergy were charging indulgences for people to assure entrance into Heaven for themselves and their relatives. He said that the indulgences had no basis in the Bible and that the Pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory. He said that Christian’s could only be saved through their own faith
Why did Martin Luther gain wide-spread support?
He wrote 95 Theses which were arguments against the indulgences. He posted his 95 Theses on the door of Wittenberg’s All Saints Church.
Then copies of his 95 Theses were printed and distributed across Europe and people begin debating about the issues he brought up. People began to agree with him and the Church wanted Luther to recant what he wrote. He would not and he called for reform
Identify 5 ideas taught by John CalvinJohn Calvin published the Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536 where he explained his religious beliefs and how to run a Protestant church.
salvation was gained through faith. 2. through predestination (God had determined who would gain salvation). 3. the world was divided into 2 kinds of people—saints & sinners.4. people needed to live Christian lives in order to be saved. 5.
the Bible was the only source of religious truth.
Government run by church leaders
idea that God determined long ago who would gain salvation
to give up one’s views
lessening of the punishment for sins
To pay for Church projects, the clergyraised fees and sold indulgenceswaged warstraded with other nationstaxed Roman citizens
raised fees and sold indulgences
The Roman Catholic Church reacted to luther’s ideas byspreading them to non-Christianssentencing him to deathexcommunicating himadapting Church doctrine
Luther believed that souls could be saved only throughthe Churchfaithbuying indulgencesparticipating in a crusade
Luther preached that all Christiansshould join a churchhad equal access to Godshould travel to Romewould enter heaven
had equal access to God
Calvin taught that only those who were saved couldmarrybecome priestslive Christian liveshave success in life
live Christian lives
Laughing in church and dancing were considered by Calvinists to behealthy outlets for young peopleimmoral practices of Catholicsallowable on special occasionsoffenses that warranted punishment
offenses that warranted punishment
he wanted to end papal control over England he was called “Defender of the Faith” for a pamphlet he wrote denouncing Luther. He wanted to have his marriage annulled from Catherine of Aragon He had one daughter (Mary Tudor) and he wanted a male heir He took over the English church
she enforced a series of reforms called the Elizabethan settlement she made a compromised between the Catholic and Protestant churches. Restored unity to England She kept some Catholic traditions while making England a Protestant nation
Council of Trent
1545—Council of Trent established the reform direction 20 years of meetings reaffirmed traditional Catholic views Salvation comes through faith and good works Said the Bible is not the only source (a major source of religious truth) Took steps to end abuses in the church Penalities to clergy for worldliness and corruption Established schools to educate the clergy
Church court set up during the Middle Ages Pope Paul III strengthened the Inquisition Used testimony, torture, and execution to punish heresy Prepared the Index of Forbidden Books which is a list of works considered to be too immoral or irreligious for Catholics to read Forbidden Books included books by Luther and Calvin
1540—the Pope recognized a new religious order The Society of Jesus is also called Jesuits Founded by Ignatius of Loyola, the Jesuit order combatted heresy and spread the Catholic faith Strict program for the Jesuits included: spiritual and oral discipline, rigorous religious training, and absolute obedience Jesuit missionaries spread Catholic faith to other lands
Teresa of Avila
symbolized the renewal of Catholic Reformation faith set up an order of nuns that lived in isolation and dedication to prayer and mediation (Spain) the Church asked her to reorganize and reform convents and monasteries throughout Spain later canonized after her death and honored for her mystical writings
to cancel a marriage Henry VIII wanted the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon
recognize as saint by the Catholic Church Sir Thomas More, the English Humanist was canonized by the Catholic
acceptable middle ground Queen Elizabeth I set policies between protestant’s and Catholics that were a middle ground between them.
someone that is blamed for someone elses’ problems people look to blame others when there are troubles
Jews were ordered to live in a separate part of the city Venice had a ghetto for the Jews Other cities in Italy had ghetto’s for the Jews to live in Some of the ghetto’s were walled off
Why were the Anabaptists considered radical?
The Anabaptists believed that babies are too young to fully understand what it means to accept the Christian faith so therefore they should not be baptized as infants, but should instead should wait until they become adults. Only adults should receive the sacrament of baptism because they would be old enough to understand what it means. Some Anabaptists were violent.
Describe the steps by which England became a Protestant country.
Henry VIII asked the Catholic pope to annul his marriage from Catherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn. He had a daughter with Catherine, but wanted a male heir. The pope said no so Henry decided to take over the Church of England. He had a series of laws passed through Parliament. The church was placed under Henry’s rule away from the pope.
In 1534, the Act of Supremacy made Henry “the only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England”. Many Catholics who refused to accept the Act of Supremacy were executed for treason.
What were the goals of the Catholic Reformation?
Pope Paul III led the Catholic Reformation during the 1530’s and 1540’s. He wanted to revive the moral authority of the Church and end corruption within the papacy. He appointed reformers to key positions to guide the Reformation.
Pope Paul III set up the Council of Trent to lead the direction of the reform. It would meet for 20 years and establish goals. The goals were: reaffirm traditional Catholic views, Salvation comes through faith and good works, the Bible is a major source of religious truth, but is not the only source, abuses in the Church must be stopped, schools were set up to educated the clergy.
Why did persecution increase after the Reformation?
Both Catholics and Protestants did not have any tolerance for other beliefs.
Catholics attacked and killed Protestants. Protestants killed Catholic priests and attacked their churches. Both Catholics and Protestants persecuted radical sects like the Anabaptists. Witch hunts became prevalent between 1450 and 1750 and thousands of men and women were killed. Many people believed in magic and spirits so they saw a link between magic and heresy.
Also during this time of trouble, they looked for scapegoats and blamed other people such as beggars, widows, midwives and herbalists.
Because the union had not produced a son, Henry VIII wished to _____ his marriage.annulghettoDutch CalvinistsAnabaptistsJesuits
The _____ were a Protestant sect that argued against infant baptism.annulghettoDutch CalvinistsAnabaptistsJesuits
The ______ were determined to combat heresy and spread the Catholic faith.
Jewish people were forced to live in _________(s)annulghettoDutch CalvinistsAnabaptistsJesuits
_____ allowed Jewish refugees to settle in the NetherlandsannulghettoDutch CalvinistsAnabaptistsJesuits
Why did Henry VIII break from the Catholic Church?to please his subjectsto keep wealth in Englandto annul his marriageto become an Anabaptist
to annul his marriage
What sort of religious policy did Elizabeth pursue during her reign?one of strict compliance with Catholic ritualsone of compromise between Catholics and Protestantsone that set Catholics and Protestants against each otherone that led England into a religious war
one of compromise between Catholics and Protestants
What was one result of the Council of Trent?war with Franceexcommunication of Lutherabolishment of the Catholic Churchreaffirmation of traditional views
reaffirmation of traditional views
Which institution strengthened the Inquisition during the Reformation?Parliamentthe Church of Englandthe Holy Roman emperorthe Roman Catholic Church
the Roman Catholic Church
Who were most often accused of being witches? women children menclergy
Polish scholar Published “On the Revolutions of the heavenly Spheres” he proposed a heliocentric universe where the sun was the center of the universe instead of the earth as Ptolemy had taught
brilliant German astronomer and mathematician used Tycho Brahe’s data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun his calculations supported Copernicus’s heliocentric view he found that planets moved in an oval-shaped orbit called an ellipse
from Italy he assembled an astronomical telescope he confirmed that the four moons of Jupiter moved around that planet his findings contradicted ancient views about the world and confirmed Copernicus’ discoveries in 1633, he was tried by the Inquisition and forced to publicly state that the Earth stood motionless at the center of the universe
Englishman Devoted to the problem of knowledge and rejected Aristotle’s scientific assumptions Stressed experimentation and observation
Frenchman Devoted to the problem of knowledge and rejected Aristotle’s scientific assumptions Emphasized human reasoning as the best road to understanding Wrote “Discourse on Method” and explained his search from provable knowledge “I think, therefore I am” is his famous statement
Englishman Formed a theory to explain why the planets moved as they did Saw an apple fall from the tree and studied the force that pulled th apple to Earth—did that force also control the movements of the planets? Showed that a single force keeps the planets in their orbits around sun. He called the force “gravity” 1687—he published “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy” which explained the law of gravity and other workings of the universe. Laws of motions and mechanics held up for over 200 years and some are still in use today
distinguished between individual elements and chemical compounds he explained the effect of temperature and pressure on gases his work opened the way to modern chemical analysis of the composition of matter
sun is the center of the Universe Nicolaus Copernicus proposed the idea Earth was one of several planets that revolved around the sun
a possible explanation scientists used reasoning to propose a possible explanation that they could observe and collect data
step by step process of discovery Scientists would propose a hypothesis They would test the hypothesis with observation and experimentation They would convert the observations and experiments into scientific laws They would repeat their work once or many times to confirm their findings
single force keeps the planets in their orbits discovered by Isaac Newton
Why did some people oppose the heliocentric theory of the universe?
At this time, all scientific knowledge and many of the religious teachings were based on the arguments of classical thinkers such as Ptolemy and Aristotle.
They believed that if Ptolemy’s reasoning about the planets was incorrect, then it would also call into question the entire system of human knowledge. They also thought it was against common sense and the teachings of the Church.
How did the scientific method differ from earlier approaches?
Earlier approaches relied on the authorities at the time, such as Ptolemy or Aristotle. The Scientific Method relied on observation and experimentation to draw conclusions about a stated hypothesis.
How did Newton try to explain the workings of the universe?
Isaac Newton felt that the same force that pulled an apple to the earth was what also controlled the movements of the planets.
He used mathematics to show that a single force keeps the planets in their orbits around the sun and he named the force, gravity. He said that all motion in the universe could be measured and described mathematically
Theory that the sun is the center of the universe.Francis BaconNicolaus CopernicusgravityheliocentricIsaac Newton
Most experts rejected this scholar’s theoryFrancis BaconNicolaus CopernicusgravityheliocentricIsaac Newton
Scholar who stressed experiment and observationFrancis BaconNicolaus CopernicusgravityheliocentricIsaac Newton
Force that determines the speed at which objects fall toward EarthFrancis BaconNicolaus CopernicusgravityheliocentricIsaac Newton
Scientist who discovered the principle of gravity.Francis BaconNicolaus CopernicusgravityheliocentricIsaac Newton
Most experts rejected the work of Copernicus because itcontradicted Ptolemy’s ideaswas not based on experimentationwas too far-fetchedexaggerated the importance of the Earth
contradicted Ptolemy’s ideas
Galileo had to withdraw his theories about the Earth’s rotation becausehe found out he was wrongthe Church threatened him with death if he did not.the ideas had caused him public ridiculehe wished to do more research
the Church threatened him with death if he did not
The new scientific method was based on religionancient teachingsobservation and experimentationreasoning
observation and experimentation
Descartes believed people could discover basic truths throughobservation experimentationreasonreligion
Galen’s ancient works were incorrect in many aspects ofhuman anatomyarchaeologyreligionarchitecture