The movement called the Renaissance included all of the following exceptA) a cultural revival intended to revive Classical and early Christian traditions.B) origins in northern Italy.C) major advances in the treatment and diagnosis of disease.D) expansion to the entire West, including Hungary, Poland, and Scandinavia.E) desire to improve and reform society of the time.
C) major advances in the treatment and diagnosis of disease.
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In humanism, the center of intellectual life wasA) the Bible, the writings of Church Fathers such as Augustine, and recent papal encyclicals.B) the new scientific thought best exemplified by da Vinci.C) the pursuit of profit in the expanding commercial economy.
D) poetry, history, and rhetoric based on ancient Greek and Roman forms and values.E) competition between city states and kingdoms in Italy.
D) poetry, history, and rhetoric based on ancient Greek and Roman forms and values.
What is the studia humanitatis?A) medicineB) any form of SchoolC) university studyD) rhetoric and literature, especially the classicsE) None of the above.
D) rhetoric and literature, especially the classics
Who is the first figure recognized as a founder of the Renaissance?A) Leonardo da VinciB) MichelangeloC) PetrarchD) MachiavelliE) Erasmus
Petrarch was aA) Scholastic philosopher.B) monk with a zeal for reform.C) ruler of a small but elegant commune.D) Classical scholar with an exalted idea of ancient Roman values.E) critic of the guild system.
D) Classical scholar with an exalted idea of ancient Roman values.
Which of the following statements is not true in describing Petrarch?A) He coined the expression “Dark Ages.”B) He felt that the goal of a philosopher or teacher was to teach the student to be good.C) He memorized the writings of the classical authors to internalize their values.
D) He recognized the tension between the Christian present and the pagan past.E) Because of the study of Greek and Roman theology, Petrarch denounced the Catholic Church.
E) Because of the study of Greek and Roman theology, Petrarch denounced the Catholic Church.
What is the frame narrative of Boccaccio’s Decameron?A) The soul’s journey to God.B) A poet explores hell, purgatory, and heaven.
C) A cycle of University lectures.D) A group of young aristocrats tell each other stories while avoiding the plague.E) A journey from London to Canterbury.
D) A group of young aristocrats tell each other stories while avoiding the plague.
How can one describe Civic Humanism?A) Rational town planningB) The discovery of a moral and ethical dimension to public lifeC) The study of political scienceD) Public serviceE) The effort to make cities beautiful by art and architecture
B) The discovery of a moral and ethical dimension to public life
Which of the following statements best describes the Italian humanist attitude toward women?A) Because of their primitive and volatile nature, women should avoid all exposure to scholarship.B) Women could be educated, but only in a passive way; they could be patrons of scholarship but not its producers.
C) Since Christianity taught that all are children of God, Roman Stoics believed that both women and men possess reason; women should have the same educational opportunities as men.D) Women have a better appreciation for subtlety; hence, they are better qualified to be scholars than men.E) Women should be educated in order to become an active part in the political arena.
B) Women could be educated, but only in a passive way; they could be patrons of scholarship but not its producers.
What did humanists travel throughout Europe seeking?A) the advice of kingsB) the thrill of foreign landsC) the rediscovery of lost classical worksD) first-hand knowledge of different groups of peopleE) None of the above.
C) the rediscovery of lost classical works
In his On the Falsely Believed and Forged Donation of Constantine, Valla proved thatA) Emperor Constantine had, in fact, given the pope the western half of the Roman Empire to rule.B) while the document was authentic, spiritual and legal reasons made it invalid.C) the language in which the document was written indicated it was an eighth-century forgery.D) the matter of the document’s authenticity is irrelevant.
E) the document’s use of diadem was not described correctly, and not in use at the time of the document.
E) the document’s use of diadem was not described correctly, and not in use at the time of the document.
All of the following statements involving Petrarch’s defense of humanists are correct exceptA) humanists believed that the study of classics did not make them less Christian.B) according to humanists, all that is seen or perceived is made by GodC) by studying the classics, one learns for the sake of knowledge alone but still remains the same man in regard to the belief in God.D) reading the classics translated into Latin destroys any pagan influence.E) one could be a Ciceronian, Platonist and still be a Christian.
C) by studying the classics, one learns for the sake of knowledge alone but still remains the same man in regard to the belief in God.
Why did Ficino think Plato was consonant with Christianity?A) Plato was a monotheist.B) Plato understood the Hebrew scriptures.C) He advocated the dignity of humanity.D) He had a useful political system for Europe.E) He was an advocate of Italian unity.
C) He advocated the dignity of humanity.
Pico della Mirandola believed thatA) man’s freedom to choose who he will become meant that human beings surpass angels in dignity.
B) all philosophies contained some truth.C) an original, unified, and divine illumination preceded even Plato.D) divine wisdom could be found in Jewish as well as Christian and pagan mystical literature.E) All of the above.
E) All of the above.
Which was not a humanistic preoccupation?A) the study of classical languagesB) Scholastic philosophyC) alchemyD) astrologyE) rhetoric
Italian humanists tended to believe that realities, such as government, were essentially static and that if change occurred it was by chance (fortuna). Most believed that fortuna could only be countered byA) virtue.B) piety.C) ruthlessness.D) God.E) law.
Which of the following is a work that was not authored by Machiavelli?A) Oration on the dignity of manB) The PrinceC) Discourses on LivyD) The MandrakeE) A History of Florence
A) Oration on the dignity of man
Machiavelli believedA) like the humanists, that educated people will choose virtue instead of vice.B) like Petrarch, that rulers should practice Christian virtues.C) that government must be based on power and that the end justifies the means.D) that Classical learning would create good rulers and good citizens.E) that governments must resist change.
C) that government must be based on power and that the end justifies the means.
Humanist fascination with education produced all of the following exceptA) a new understanding of language, philosophy, and religion.B) an intense search for classics that young Roman men studied to become educated Romans.C) a lending library at the Vatican.D) the creation of private libraries of the classics.E) co-educational schools.
E) co-educational schools.
What artistic breakthrough characterizes the work of Giotto?A) three-dimensionalityB) drama and emotion painted in real spaceC) 360 degree sculptureD) the use of new colorsE) allegorical imagery
B) drama and emotion painted in real space
What innovation did Masaccio astonish Florence with in 1427?A) true linear perspective in The TrinityB) a novel use of fresco techniqueC) new types of Bronze castingD) classically proportioned architectureE) None of the above.
A) true linear perspective in The Trinity
The architectural work of BrunelleschiA) built on the work of Suger.B) was based on his study of Classical buildings.C) resembled no style ever used in the past.D) sought for greater height than that of the Gothic cathedrals.E) was based on religious themes.
B) was based on his study of Classical buildings.
All of the following statements describe the evolution of painting as a major art form during the fifteenth century exceptA) artists found few classical pieces to study and imitate.B) the development of linear perspective led to greater interest in painting.C) the church and society were against any kind of religious figures in paintingD) artists came to terms with the innovations of the earlier period.E) symbolism could be translated into visual truths, virtues, and beauty.
C) the church and society were against any kind of religious figures in painting
Leonardo da Vinci was known forA) abstract painting and nonfigurative sculpture.B) great literary expertise and humanist accomplishments.C) construction of the first successful airplanes and submarines.D) chiaroscuro painting and analytical observation.E) his emphasis on the classics.
A) abstract painting and nonfigurative sculpture.
All of the following are true of Michelangelo except that heA) rejected Platonism as irreligious.B) sculpted a great statue of David.C) was a supporter of Florentine republicanism.D) painted the Sistine Chapel.E) often painted into his work a psychological self portrait concerned with his own spiritual failings.
A) rejected Platonism as irreligious.
Which of the following statements describes how northern art changed in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?A) Religious topics were abandoned and linear perspective was adopted.B) Austerity and an emphasis on vertical lines gave way to complexity and emotion, while ornate, vivid painting was replaced by an emphasis on depth.C) It was supplanted by the Italian style and became a business.D) Religious topics were abandoned and aerial perspective was adopted.E) Northern art moved away from highly formalized style to a detailed representation of specific places.
B) Austerity and an emphasis on vertical lines gave way to complexity and emotion, while ornate, vivid painting was replaced by an emphasis on depth.
Referring to the chapter feature, “The Global Record: Gentile Bellini Travels to Meet the Turkish Sultan,” how did the Muslim Turks, and especially Mehmed II, react to Gentile?A) The portrait of Emperor Mehmed II by Gentile was the result of an unusual meeting between painter and Islamic leaders of the time.B) Islam does not allow pictorial representations, but Italian paintings and their artists amazed the Turks.C) Turks could not believe that any mortal man could present so much divinity in a piece of art.D) Because the Emperor considered himself a miracle, he forbade any portrait of himself.E) Not being able to actually pay Bellini for painting a portrait of the Emperor Mehmed II, Bellini was overwhelmed with impressive gifts.
C) Turks could not believe that any mortal man could present so much divinity in a piece of art.
Which of the following does not describe the role of art during the Renaissance?A) religiousB) a sign of statusC) emphasis on social criticismD) communication of social, political, and spiritual valuesE) revered for its miraculous powers
D) communication of social, political, and spiritual values
Humanists outside of Italy wereA) more absorbed in Roman history than the Italians.B) not concerned with local interests.C) more interested in religious reform.D) from areas that had been part of the Roman EmpireE) not interested in imitating the past in their work.
C) more interested in religious reform.
The spread of humanist culture was greatly aided byA) the use of printing.B) the growth of agnosticism and atheism.C) the preaching of missionaries.D) the use of a new common language, French.E) new interests in the past works of great Islamic writers and philosophers.
A) the use of printing.
Which of the following was critical to the success of Renaissance artists?A) the support of the papacyB) the sponsorship of patrons, great and smallC) the permission of the ChurchD) the attitudes of the middle class E) exposure to non-Christian cultures
B) the sponsorship of patrons, great and small
Where did the Renaissance begin?A) Papal RomeB) ParisC) NuremburgD) The city-states of North Central ItalyE) Venice
A) Papal Rome
Which is not an example of Renaissance vernacular literature?A) The Canterbury TalesB) DecameronC) Piers PlowmanD) The Mirror for Simple SoulsE) On the Falsely Believed and Forged Donation of Constantine
In The Book of the City of Ladies, Christine de PizanA) addressed the querelle des femmes.B) stated that women appeared inferior because their education was inferior.C) stated that male critics could be countered by reason, prudence, and justice.D) stated that like sons, daughters should also be educated in the natural sciences.E) All of the above.
E) All of the above.
The invention of movable type by Gutenberg resulted in all of the following exceptA) the rise of print shops as centers of culture and communication.B) the creation of agreed-upon standard editions.C) the first mass production of playing cards and woodcuts.D) improved study of rare works.E) the dramatic expansion of libraries.
D) improved study of rare works.
What was the “polyglot” bible?A) Erasmus’ first Greek edition of the New TestamentB) A parallel edition of Latin, Greek, and HebrewC) The first vernacular translation of the bibleD) The first printed bibleE) None of the above.
E) None of the above.
The Renaissance had a significant impact on all of the following exceptA) Sweden.B) Poland.C) Hungary.D) Russia.E) Austria.
The northern Renaissance’s attempt to blend humanism and religion includedA) the development of the Polyglot (“many-tongued”) Bible.B) the rediscovery of early Christian authors.C) the belief that all philosophies and religions contained universal truths.D) material and studies that would later become a foundation of the Reformation.E) All of the above.
E) All of the above.
All of the following are true of Sir Thomas More except that he wasA) a Dominican friar.B) the author of Utopia.C) a friend of Erasmus.D) executed by Henry VIII.E) indirectly responsible for the persecution of English Protestants.
C) a friend of Erasmus.
What position did Thomas More attain in England?A) Prime MinisterB) Lord ChancellorC) Archbishop of CanterburyD) King’s secretaryE) Lord High Executioner
B) Lord Chancellor
The “Prince of Humanists,” Erasmus, developed a “Philosophy of Christ” thatA) held that the true essence of Christianity was the life and actions of Christ and that each person was good and rational.B) condemned all non-Christian philosophies as false but also rejected church authority.C) was officially adopted as part of the Reformation.D) was officially adopted by the Catholic Church.E) criticized Greek and Roman wisdom as being non-transferable to the sixteenth century.
A) held that the true essence of Christianity was the life and actions of Christ and that each person was good and rational.
Erasmus’ general outlook was that Christianity should focus onA) devotional exercises.B) Penitence.C) ethical living.D) the institutional Church.E) salvation by Faith.
C) ethical living.
What was Erasmus’ contribution to scripture study?A) A Hebrew edition of the Old Testament.B) A rejection of literalism in favor of allegory.C) The first Greek scholarly edition of the New Testament.D) Interpretation that influenced Martin Luther.E) An emphasis on wonder and miracle.
C) The first Greek scholarly edition of the New Testament.
As the Renaissance maturedA) secular rulers used it to help define and celebrate their authority.B) it was blended with religion in a spectacular manner by the popes.C) it helped to transform the medieval knight into a gentleman.D) the use of elaborate and sumptuous courts was used to unify culture and ideology.E) All of these
E) All of these
What was the primary use of a Renaissance Court?A) to create a unified culture and ideology around the person of the sovereignB) to coordinate governmentC) to maintain a bureaucracyD) to interface with Church officialsE) to provide jobs for family members
A) to create a unified culture and ideology around the person of the sovereign
Which family dominated Mantua for hundreds of years?A) the MediciB) the SforzasC) the GonzagasD) the della ScalasE) None of the above.
C) the Gonzagas
What is not true of Isabella d’Este?A) She had a classical education.B) She was an accomplished musician.C) She was a great patron of the arts.D) She was a great painter.E) She used her patronage to increase contacts between Mantua and the European powers.
D) She was a great painter.
The first Pope who recognized the utility of the Renaissance for Rome wasA) Urban ViB) Nicholas VC) Alexander VID) Julius IIE) Clement VII
B) Nicholas V
Which artist is not represented with works in the Sistine Chapel?A) MichelangeloB) LeonardoC) BotticelliD) PeruginoE) Signorelli
In The Book of the Courtier, Castiglione advised all of the following except thatA) women should organize a court’s discussions.B) grace was inborn in every nobleman and needed to be drawn out.C) martial and religious values were no longer fashionable.D) true gentlemen should have an unstudied naturalness.E) under no circumstances should a woman dominate a debate.
C) martial and religious values were no longer fashionable.
Which is not an essential quality of a courtier, according to Castiglione?A) dancingB) military knowledgeC) conversationD) classical educationE) Scholastic philosophy
D) classical education
What is sprezzatura?A) A type of Renaissance danceB) A system for classical educationC) Graceful and nonchalant spontaneityD) A type of urban planningE) Another word for civic humanism