Chapter 13 – European Middle Ages

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Last updated: April 23, 2019
lord
landowner

fief
a piece of granted land

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vassal
the person receiving the granted land, or fief

Structure of the Feudal System
1. King2. the most powerful vassals – wealthy landowners such as nobles and bishops 3. Knights4. landless peasants who toiled in the fields

knights
mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords’ lands in exchange for fiefs

Social Status inn the feudal system
1.

those who fought (nobles and knights)2. those who prayed (men and women of the Church) 3. those who worked (the peasants) Social class was usually inherited

Serfs
people who could not lawfully leave the place where they were born.

Though bound to the land they were not slaves. They could not be sold by the lords but the labor they produced belonged to the lord.

Manor
the lord’s estate

What was the basic economic system?
the manor system

The Manor System
rested on a set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs. the lord provided the serfs with housing, farmland, and protection from bandits.In return, the serfs tended the lord’s lands, cared for his animals and performed other tasks to maintain the estate.Peasant women shared int he farm work with their husbands.

All peasants whether free of serf owed the lord certain duties. These included at least a few days of labor each week and a certain portion of their grain.

tithe
church tax

what did the tithe represent?
1/10 of their income

chivalry
a complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters. He devoted himself to his earthly feudal lord, his heavenly lord and his chosen lady. The knight also had to protect the weak and the poor. The ideal knight was loyal, brave, and courteous.

A knights training
sons of nobles began training to be knights at an early age. At the age of 7, the boy would be sent off to the castle of another lord.

as a page he waited on his hosts and began to practice fighting skills. Then around the age of 14 he moved up on the scale from page to squire. A squire acted as a servant to a knight. At around age 21 the squire became a full fledged knight.

what did saddles do?
kept warrior firmly seated on a moving horsee

what did stirrups do?
enabled warrior to ride and handle heavier weapons.

tournament
mock battles

describe a tournament
two armies of knights charged at each other. the trumpets sounded and lords and ladies cheered.

they were fierce and bloody battles and the winners normally claimed large ransoms from defeated knights

troubadours
traveling poet-musicians at the castles and courts of Europe

womens role in feudal society
most were powerless. thought inferior to men – this was the view of the Church and ws generally accepted in feudal society.

noblewomen
could ingerit an esstate from her husband. she could send her lords knights to war upon his request. if her husband was off fighting and she was left in a mediieval castle, she was military commander and a warrior. generally though they were confined to activities in the ome or convent.

they also held little property and their daughters didn’t recieve land form her father the lord

Peasant Women
performed endless labor around the home and often in the fields, they bore children and took care of their families. young girls learned practical household skills. they were poor and powerless.

to inventions that changed warfare
leather saddles and stirrups

who were the occupants of a castle?
lord and lady, their family, knights and other men-at-arms, and servants

themes of medieval literature
downplayed the brutality of knighthood and feudal warfare. Idealized castle lifeglorified knighthood and chivalry, tournaments and real battles also about the knights undying love for a lady

clergy
includes bishops and priests

sacraments
important religious ceremonies

structure of church
1.pope2. clergybishops supervised priestsbishops also settled disputes over Church teachings and practices

salvations
everlasting life in heaven

canon law
Church law

excommunication
banishment from the Church

interdict
under an interdict, many sacraments and religious services could not be performed in the kings lands.

the most effective ruler of mediieval Germany
Otto I (Otto the Great)

whata did Otto do?
qformed a close alliance with the church built up his power base by gaining support of bishops and abbots.

He used his power to defeat the fGerman princes nd dominated the Church of Germany. He also invaded Italy on pope’s behalf. Pope then rewarded him by crowning him emperor

who are abbots?
head of monastaries

What was the German-Italian empire the Otto created called?
Roman Empire of the German Nation later known as the Holy Roman Empire

lay investure
a ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials

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