living in a section of a country set aside for foreigners but not subject to the host country’s laws.Europeans lived in their own sections and were subject not to Chinese laws but to their own laws—a practice known as extraterritoriality.
a policy promoted by reformers toward the end of the Qing dynasty (late 19th century) under which China would adopt Western technology while keeping its Confucian values and institutions. The Qing court finally began to listen to the appeals of reform-minded officials, the reformers requesting a new policy that they called “self-strengthening.
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spheres of influence
areas in which foreign powers have been granted exclusive rights and privileges, such as trading rights and mining privileges.European states began to create spheres of influence as among the ominous changes that were taking place in the Chinese heartland.
the payment for damages. The Chinese government was forced to pay a heavy indemnity to the powers that had crushed the uprising.
local; of or relating to a province In 1909 legislative assemblies were formed at the provincial.
agricultural, mined, and mass-produced marketable goods The growth of industry and trade was especially noticeable in the cities, where a national market for commodities such as oil, copper, salt, and tea had appeared.
a political compromise Some shogunate officials (rulers of Japan) recommended concessions.
In the Japanise Meiji Restoration, a territory governed by its former daimyo (nobel) lord. The new leaders stripped the daimyo lords of their land in turn for the lord’s being named governors of their territories that were called prefectures.
a Christian convert, viewed himself as a younger brother of Jesus, convinced that God had given him the mission of destroying the Qing dynasty, ruler of the Tai Ping Rebellion, captured the town of Yongan and Nanjing, joined by large crowds of peasants, and proclaimed a new dynasty, the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (Tai Ping Tianguo in Chinese) killed a total of 20 million people in a 14 year time span (1814-1864)
A young emperor who launched the hundred days of reform; wanted to enforce Westernized ideas; modernized industries, schools, military; imprisoned by conservatives who opposed reforms
Empress Dowager Ci Xi
Guang Xu’s aunt, strongly against reform, she imprisoned the emperor and ended his attempts at reform, ruled for 50 years over China
American; 1899; Secretary of State; wrote a letter to Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and Russia with a proposal for equal access to Chinese markets for all nations; established Open Door Policy
Open Door Policy
A policy of the United States in 1899 that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism; reflected American concern for the survival of China, also reflecting the interests of some U.S. trading companies; didn’t end the system of spheres of influence but reduced restrictions on foreign imports imposed by the dominating power within each sphere
radical; formed the Revive China Society during the 1890s; developed a three-stage reform project; first stage was military takeover; second stage (transitional phase) Sun’s own revolutionary party prepared the people for democratic rule; final stage called for establishment of a constitutional democracy; established the Revolutionary Alliance (Nationalist Party) at a convention group of radicals from across China in 1905; NP advocated his Three People’s principles, promoting nationalism, democracy, and the right for people to pursue their own livelihoods
Henry Pu Yi
China’s last emperor who was an infant when put into power; the Qing dynasty fell soon afterwards
General Yuan Shigai
Military leader who assumed control after the Revolution of 1911 and the collapse of the Qing Dynasty; knew little of the Western ideas and ruled in a traditional manner; when appointed as president, he had promised to help create a democratic government, but he ruled as a dictator; was hated by the reformers for using murder and terror to destroy the new democratic institutions; traditionalists hated him for being disloyal to the dynasty he had served; clashed with the Nationalist Party who eventually launched a rebellion that failed; died in 1916
Commodore Matthew Perry
arrived summer of 1853 in Edo Bay (now Tokyo Bay) with an American fleet of four warships; brought letter from President Millard Fillmore asking Japanese for better treatment of sailors shipwrecked on the Japanese islands (treated as criminals and exhibited in public cages); also asked to open foreign relations between United States and Japan; returned six months later for answer with larger fleet; Shogunate officials recommended concessions (political compromises); the guns of his ship ultimately made Japan’s decision to agree to Treaty of Kanagawa with the United States
Treaty of Kanagawa
(1854) trade treaty between Japan and the United States; opening of two Japanese ports to Western traders, and the establishment of a US consulate in Japan; signed in response to a show of force by U.S.
admiral Matthew Perry; returned shipwrecked sailors to the US; more ports to US trade and residence added in 1858; Japan signed similar treaties with European nations
emperor of Japan in the 1870s (16 years old); symbol of a new area of industrialization; called his reign the Meiji (means “enlightened rule”); this lead to Meiji restoration; while he was the leader, he was mostly controlled by the Sat-Cho (a ruling group); capital moved to Edo (Tokyo)
first prime minister of Japan; traveled to Great Britain, France, Germany and the US to study their governments that the Meiji Restoration could base it’s own government on
Compare and contrast the Tai Ping Rebellion and the Boxer Rebellion
Tai Ping Rebellion: lead by Hong Xiquan who viewed himself as the brother of Jesus. He was convinced that God himself had given him the mission of destroying the Qing dynasty. Peasant revolts. Established Holy Kingdom of Great Peace. Massacred 25,000 men, women and children in March 1853 in Nanjing. Revolt continued for 10 more years before eventually falling apart. In total, 20 million deaths occurred in 14 years. Boxer Rebellion: started because the Boxers (secret Chinese society) were upset by economic distress and the foreign takeover of Chinese lands.
Their slogan was “destroy the foreigners.” Disliked Christian missionaries and Chinese coverts to Christianity. 1900, Boxer bands roamed the countryside and slaughtered foreign missionaries, foreign business people. An allied army of British, French, German, Russian, American and Japanese troops attacked Beijing in August 1900. It restored order and demanded more consequences from the Chinese government, they were forced to pay an indemnity to the powers that crushed the uprising. Similarities: both rebellions had to be crushed by outside European forces.
Both were violent rebellions. Both took place in China. Killed millions of people.
How did Western influences change Chinese society and culture?
Western influence in China affected the Chinese economy in three ways: Westerners introduced modern transportation and communications, created an export market, and integrated the Chinese market into the nineteenth century world economy. To some, this new way of thinking was beneficial for modernization, but for others, China was paying a heavy price with imperialism imposing a state of dependence on China, condemning China to a condition of underdevelopment, its local industry destroyed. Radical reformers wanted to eliminate traditional culture, condemning it as an instrument of oppression, they were interested in creating a new China and wanted to be respected by the modern world. First changes in traditional culture came in the late nineteenth century.
Western books, art and ideas were introduced, art and literature becoming popular. Traditional culture remained popular in rural areas. Family values were still kept traditional, although as time went on they slowly adapted to the modern ways.
Identify and explain one change brought about by the Meiji Restoration of Japan in each of the following areas: politics, economics, and social structure.
Politics: abolished the old order by creating territories called prefectures which were territories given to the daimyos who were now the lords of that land after being stripped from their power. Meiji Government studied the way the Western government functioned, their government being heavily influenced by it.
Two main factions appeared: the Liberals and the Progressives. Liberals wanted political reforms based on Western liberal democratic model, which vested supreme authority in a parliament. The Progressives wanted power to be shared between the legislative and executive branches, with the executives having more power. During the 1870s and 1880s, these factions fought for control, the Progressives won. The Meiji Constitution was adopted in 1889, and was modeled after the imperial Germany, giving most authority to the executive branch. Economics: Traditional lands of the daimyos became private property of the peasants, the daimyos were compensated with government bonds. Annual 3% tax on estimated value of land, farmers and peasants were forced to pay regardless of their harvest or not. Peasants often could not afford their land anymore, resulting in the selling of their land and becoming tenant farmers who paid rent to their new owners, by the end o the 19th century, 40% were tenant farmers.
Social: New school system based on American models, elementary, secondary and universities. Emphasis still placed on virtues of loyalty to family and community. Loyalty to emperor was valued.
How did contact between Japan and the West influence culture?
The Western technology and ides that entered Japan after 1850 greatly altered traditional Japanese culture.
Japanese authors began imitating the imported models, writing novels that were patterned after the French tradition of realism. They presented social conditions and the realities of war as objective as possible. The Japanese invited engineers, architects, and artists from Europe and the US to teach their “modern” skills to Japanese students. They copied Western architectural styles, and built huge buildings of steel and reinforced cornet, adorned with Greek columns. Many Japanese artists began to return to older techniques by the end of the 1800s.
Cultural exchange also went the other way. Japanese crafts and art, porcelain, textiles, fans, folding screens, and woodblock print became fashionable in Europe and North America. Japanese gardens, with their close attention to the positioning of rocks and falling water, became especially popular in the US.
How did China’s interaction with the West compare and contrast to Japan’s interaction with the West?
Comparisons: China and Japan both resisted European power at first. Embracing parts of western culture like modernization, industrialism, and technology, but wanted to maintain their Confucian values. West military strength influenced their decision to open up trading portsDifferences: Japan was much quicker to modernize and transform because they were able to see what happened in China and study the way a country transformed by using Western influence. Japanese wanted to adapt to the way Westerners built, painted, taught and acted, while Chinese were split down the middle; some were all for new ways of thinking and ideas while others wanted to hold on to the traditional culture and values.