Chapter 2 Questions

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Last updated: April 24, 2019

When applying the scientific method to research a project, social science researchers have to develop a(n) ______ of each concept that is being studied.

Operational definition

Which of the following describes the scientific method?
It is designed to search for cause and effect between variablesIt is systematicIt is an organized, step – by- step process

The scientific method is important to research for which of the following reasons?
It allows sociological researchers to evaluate the findings of others and assess their credibility.It offers a methodology through which researchers can obtain useful data..

It is important for students to understand the scientific method, even if they will never do sociological research, so they can
Differentiate between facts, errors, and fiction.

When research reveals a correlation between two or more variables, this
Indicates that causality may or may not be present

When conducting research, sociologists always review literature
To gain insight about other factors that might pertain to their studyTo analyze other relevant studies about the same problem they are researching to gain additional insights.

An hypothesis is
A conjecture by the researcher about the connection between multiple fluctuating factors

The research design chosen by researchers guides the way they will _____ their data.
Collect and analyze

When researchers want to study possible cause-and-effect relationship, they may conduct experiments.

Independent variable – hypothesized to cause or influence another variableVaiable – measureable traitDependent variable – influenced by another variable

Which of the following is characteristic of a dependent variable?
Influenced by the independent variable

Casual logic is best defined as
The relationship between a condition and consequence, with one leading to the other

Correlation is a relationship in which a change in one variable ______ a change in other variable.
Coincides with

Which states have a high educational level and a high educational household income?
Califonia, Minnesota, Virginia

Why would monitoring callers to a radio talk show not be a good way to gather information about the general population’s feeling on a specific issue

If a sample is representative, this means
The sample reflects the test population

In order for research to both valid and reliable, it has to
Measure what it says it is going to measure and produce consistent results.

If researchers produce accurate data that is right on target, they are demonstrating
Validity

Scientific studies do not aim to answer all the questions that can be raised about a particular subject. Therefore, the conclusion of a research study represents
Both an end and beginning

When data collected does not support the hypothesis,
The researchers must accept the results and reports them in their conclusions

If you are involved in a research project and you are not exposed to the independent variable, you are
In the control group

When researchers decide how to collect data they use a _____ ______, a detailed plan for gathering data scientifically
research design

Researchers who want to gather comparable data from a large number of people would probably
Administer a survey

If researchers want to have an effective survey question, the survey question must
Be easily understandable by the respondents

______ research provides rich information from sources such as field observation and in-depth interviews
Qualitative

Researchers choose observation as their method to collect information when
They want to examine behaviors that cannot be investigated through any other means.

Observation is the most common form of qualitative research, but it can have some challenges for researchers. Which of the following are challenges in using observation as research techniques?
Researchers must remain detached to some degree from the subjects under studyresearchers must be careful not to develop friendships to influence the subjects’ behavior

Experiments are useful because
they allow researchers to manipulate

When researchers are present and behavior of the subjects is affected, this phenomenon is known as
The Hawthorne Effect

When sociologists conduct research and test hypothesis, they do not necessarily need to conduct new data all the time. They can make use of
data that was collected for use in another manner, such a census data

When sociologists conduct research and test hypothesis, they do not originally intended, this is called
secondary analysis

It is important to maintain value neutrality in sociological research
so sociologists will report findings even when those findings go against their own personal views.

statements are part of the American sociological Association’s Code of Ethics?
acknowledge research collaboration and assistancepreserve confidentialitymaintain objectivity and integrity in researchdisclose all sources of researcher funding

To be certain that htey are not invading their subject’s privacy, sociologists assure subjects of anonymity and promise to keep personal information _____.
confidential

Researchers have an ethical obligation to accept and report research finding even when data go against their own personal beliefs or biases.
True

Researchers are not practicing _____ when they allow their personal feelings to affect the interpretation of data.

value neutrality

Which of the following is an example of potential conflict of interest?
Researchers accept money from a company that will profit if they find evidence to support the company’s business.

Of the four theoretical approaches to sociology, with methodology has had the greatest impact on the current generation of social researchers?
Feminist Perspective

Technology’s impact on sociological research
has allowed researchers to handle larger amount of datalocates useful information via the internet

The more broadly you search a topic, the better results you will get for your subject
false

After completing your research, which of the following are useful tips given by the textbook in writing a report for your class?
take time to develop an outlineread the report aloudcite information from all sources

Summarizing other people’s ideas without giving them credit is called______.
plageiarism

When researchers talk about mean, they referring to
an average that is calculated by adding a series of values, then dividing the number of values.

Why do sociologist use percentages, means, modes, and medians to conduct their research?
to identify patterns in long lists of numbersto save time analyzing data

the following scores on a 10-point quiz are 10, 10, 9, 9, 9, 8, 7, 6, 6, 6, 6, 4. the mode is
6

The median approximates the ___ between the highest and lowest values in a set of scores.
Midpoint

Percentage is the term for a measure that shows
a portion out of 100

Graphs and tables allow sociologists to
use pictures to represent data for ease of understandingdisplay data

sociologists use statics to better understand social behavior in which of the following ways?
to identify a pattern or central tendencyto provide support for legislationto analyze how attitudes have changed

xavailability of affording housingparents’ church attendanceoccupation
Ylevel of homelessnesschildren’s church attendanceincome level

Surveys can be administered in which of the following ways?
personal interviewstelephone interviewsweb-based questionnairesmailed questionaires

If researchers measure something and determine that it is valid, this means
the measure or scale truly reflects the objects under study

List the scientific method
1.define the problem2.

review the literature3. formulate a testable hypothesis4. select a research design and collect and analyze data5. report the results

Which of the following are statistical summary measures used by sociologists?
means, modes, medians

Max Weber defined value neutrality as
sociological researchers reporting research finding even if the findings run against their own feelings or common sense beliefssociological researcher working to overcome any biases they may bring to their research.

If the number of drinks consumed by a small group is 4, 4, 6, 7, and 8, the number 6 would be the _____ for that group.
median

Researchers do ______ _______ when they use previously collected information and data in their research.
secondary analysis

an educated guess about the relationship researchers might find between two or more variables is
an hypothesis

Which of the following pertain to an operational definition?
It is a specific explanation about a conceptIt explains an abstract concept

What are some of the ways to cite references in a report?
using footnotesinserting references into the text

When sociologists use previously gathered data in a way that is not originally intended, this is called
secondary analysis

Researchers rely on computers to deal with quantitative data, but electronic technology is also assisting them with_____ data.
qualitative

If sociological researchers want to collect data on the American population’s opinion on all political issue related to guns, which method will yield the most accurate results?
A random sample of the population

What is the most important factor to consider when writing a survey question?
It must be simple and clear

If every member of an entire population that is being studied has the same chance of being selected to participate in the study, this is called a
random sample

One type of summary sociologist use, _____, is a table that shows the relationship between two or more variables.
cross-tabulation

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