Chapter 3 (Midterm)

Topics: ArtSculpture

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Last updated: May 6, 2019

Urban problems in the Hellenistic Age included
a lack of public safety.poor sanitation.a reliance on imported food supplies.

Greek schools of the Hellenistic era
emphasized Homer as the primary literary text.

In 323 B.C.E., Alexander died in Babylon
from alcohol abuse and fever.

During the Hellenistic period, slavery
increased in number.

The Rosetta Stone was important because it
was written in three scripts: Greek, cursive Egyptian, and hieroglyphs, permitting the translation of the Egyptian language.

The southern Greek states were defeated by Philip II at the battle of
Chaeronea.

In Egypt, Alexander
was declared the incarnation of the god Amon, and was treated as pharaoh.

Alexander’s love of Greek culture and literature seems to have come from his tutor,
Aristotle.

Alexander’s legacy includes
he blending of Greek and Asian cultures.the idea of a single great empire of many peoples ruled by one king.his political conquests, although in some regions these did not last long.

The period of ancient Greek history that began with Alexander’s conquest of Persia is called
Hellenistic.

Hellenistic science
made important advances in mathematics and astronomy.

was a Greek-speaking kingdom north of Greece.
Macedonia

The Antigonids ruled
Macedonia.

The Hellenistic school of philosophy that advocated the rejection of the goods of this world in order to achieve happiness was that of the
Cynics.

The Alexandrian successor kingdom ruled over by his general Ptolemy and Ptolemy’s successors was
Egypt.

The monument at Alexandria that was regarded as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world wasAlexander’s tomb.
the lighthouse, or Pharos.

During the Hellenistic period, women
were allowed freer access to economic and cultural professions.

A major difference between “classical” Greek art and the art of the Hellenistic era was
the tendency towards realistic rather than idealistic portrayal in sculpture.

Philip II dreamed of conquering Persia but did not do so because
he was assassinated, under circumstances that have never been clearly explained.

The southern Greek states, the self-described “civilized” Greeks, regarded the Macedonians as
backward, because they did not have the political life of the city-states.

Ptolemies
A dynasty that began ruling Egypt after Alexander’s death

Rosetta Stone
A tablet recording Ptolemy V’s deeds in three languages

Seleucids
A dynasty that ruled Asia after Alexander’s death

Antigonids
A dynasty that ruled Greek and Macedonia after Alexander’s death

Septuagint
An influential document in which the Hebrew Scriptures were translated into Greek

Maccabean Revolt
An armed uprising in response to discriminatory policies toward Jews

Cynicism
The philosophy that people should reject material things to achieve spiritual happiness

Epicureanism
The philosophy that happiness comes from seeking pleasure while avoiding pain

Stoicism
The philosophy that people should not be emotionally attached to external things

Mystery Religion
Popular cults in which people felt a passionate spiritual connection with deities

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