Chapter 38 APUSH

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Last updated: December 10, 2019

John F. Kennedy
president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the Cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on TV and told the public about the crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet union to withdraw their missiles.

other events, which were during his terms was the building of the Berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.

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Robert F. Kennedy
He ran for President in 1968; stirred a response from workers, African Americans, Hispanics, and younger Americans; would have captured Democratic nomination but was assassinated by Sirhan after victory speech during the California primary in June 1968.

Walt Witman Rostow
One of the most influential modernization theorists, charted the route from traditional society to ‘the age of high mass consumption’, The Stages of Economic Growth

Robert McNamara
The US Secretary of Defense during the battles in Vietnam. He was the architech for the Vietnam war and promptly resigned after the US lost badly

Martin Luther King, Jr
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.

Nobel Peace Prize (1964)

Lyndon B. Johnson
signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.

Michael Harrington
Author who wrote The Other American. He alerted those in the mainstream to what he saw in the run-down and hidden communities of the country.

Barry Goldwater
1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964; lost by largest margin in history

Malcolm X
militant civil rights leader (1925-1965)

Stokely Carmichael
head of the SNCC making a separatist philosophy of black power as the official objective of the organization

J. William Fulbright
along with journalist, this Senator and chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, turned against the war and in January 1966 began to stage highly publicized and occasionally televised congressional hearings to air criticisms of it.

Hubert Humphrey
LBJ’s vice president and McCarthy’s opposition in 1968 primary after LBJ stepped down. won nomination; not presidency.

Richard M. Nixon
He was a committee member of the House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities (to investigate “subversion”).

He tried to catch Alger Hiss who was accused of being a communist agent in the 1930’s. This brought Nixon to the attention of the American public. In 1956 he was Eisenhower’s Vice-President.

George Wallace
Racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 (“segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever”); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot

Flexible Response
the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons

Modernization Theory
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations

Credibility Gap
The gap between the Johnson Administration and the American public support

New Frontier
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election.

He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.

Peace Corps
a civilian organization sponsored by the United States government

Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S.

Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.

Cuban Missile Crisis
An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S.

discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.

Alliance for progress
a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems

Freedom Rides
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961

March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous “I have a dream…

” speech. 250,000 people attended the rally

War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson’s program in the 1960’s to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly

Great Society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.

S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.

Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.

Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap

Black Power
the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.

Six Day War
tension between Arabs and Israeli erupted into a brief war in June 1967

Operation Rolling Thunder
bombing campaign over North Vietnam, supposed to weaken enemy’s ability and will to fight

Hawks and Doves
Hawks are people who supported the war’s goal. and Doves were people who opposed the war.

Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment

Beat Poets
describes a group of authors who became famous in the 1950’s.

Composed of new experimentation with drugs and different types of sexuality. Followers were anti-war activists and peace promoters, similar to the hippie era

Free Speech Movement
led by Mario Savio it protested on behalf of students rights. It spread to colleges through out the country discussing unpopular faculty tenure decisions, dress codes, dormitory regulations, and appearances by Johnson administration officials.

Students for a Democratic Society
Founded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960s.

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