In this chapter, the analysis of primary informations was carried out utilizing Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) 17 for Windowss. First, begins with the response rate of the study through the informations aggregation.
Next, a better sight of demographic analysis such as pie charts and histograms are presented for reader to acquire deep apprehension. Then, findings and treatment such as cogency, dependability, correlativities and multiple arrested developments will show and analyse based on the empirical information that has been collected through questionnaires distribution.In this survey, study is used as a information aggregation method. Sample was taken indiscriminately from client with Internet banking experiment and erstwhile users ( non continual user ) . Data aggregation was conducted in Multimedia University, Malacca and some company in Johor Bahru, from get downing of February to the terminal of February, 2010. Entire 210 studies were distributed and collected for this survey. Out of this, merely 10 respondents were found disqualification in this study.
Thus, 200 functional and qualified questionnaires were returned giving response rate of 95.2 % , which was considered satisfactory for subsequent analysis.The analysis of primary informations was carried out utilizing Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) 17 for Windowss. The consequence shows that most of the respondents are male ( 64.5 % ) and between 18-22 old ages old ( 47 % ) , 54.5 % are pupils, 78 % have Bachelor grade and income of 36.5 % is between RM0-RM999. The following Table 4.
1represents the demographic features of the respondents. In add-on, below pie charts and histograms present profoundly inside informations of the consequence of demographic features for a better perceptual experience and apprehension.Based on the pie chart above ( Figure 4.1 ) , a big pool of respondents was male stand foring 64.
5 % of the entire sample size. It shows that a predomination of males among Internet banking users in Malaysia. Merely 35.
5 % of female participated in this survey. It implies that female respondents have a much lower acceptance rate than males.
Figure 4.1: Respondent gender
Figure 4.2 shows ages ranged in seven groups from 18 to 48 or supra. The respondents in this survey were comparatively immature, striplings or immature grownups.
Figure 4.2: Respondent ‘s age
Entire 47 % of participants belonged to first age group that is between 18 and 22 old ages old. The comparatively high proportion of first age group in the present sample should non be surprising, because pupils comprised 54.5 % of the sample.
Some pupils are belonged to 2nd age group, with 8.5 % between 23 and 27 old ages old. Besides, age between 28 and 32 old ages old is 2nd largest proportion of respondents ( 17 % ) , followed by age between 33-37 old ages old class. Age scope over 48 old ages old is least respondents of the sample, merely 2 % of the respondents.
3 Educational Degree
The findings show in the Figure 4.3 and highlight that most of the respondents have certain educationl degree. The respondents were by and large good educated with over 78 % keeping a Bachelor grade. There is merely a bantam proportion with 4 % claimed to hold maestro grade. Respondents with at least pre-U/ foundation and sheepskin make up 9 % of the respondents severally. Based on the consequences, this is consistent with old research ( Karjaluoto, 2002 ) , which found that Internet users are good educated because it requires Internet accomplishments and computing machine cognition.
Figure 4.3: Respondent ‘s educational degree
4.2.4 Current Position
As mentioned in chapter 3, the chief mark respondent is pupil. Therefore, doubtless 54.
5 % of pupils participated in this study while working professionals ( 45.5 % ) form the following largest group. The on the job place is being classified into seven classs such as supervisor, self-employment, director, academic, professional, executive and applied scientist. In term of working place, executive comprised 20 % of the sample while 15.5 % of respondents are professional. Merely 1 % of the respondent is freelance.
The determination is presented in figure 4.4.
Figure 4.4: Current Position
In term of income degree, pupils with at least have RM0-999 ( 36.
5 % ) or RM1,000-RM1,999 ( 18 % ) make up 54.5 % of the respondents. Of those who are working, 16 % earn an norm monthly income of between RM2,000 and RM2,999, followed by 13 % of income between RM3,000-RM3,999, RM4,000-RM4,999 ( 9 % ) and RM5,000 or more ( 7.
5 % ) .
Figure 4.5: Respondent ‘s Income
4.2.6 Internet Banking Experience
In term of Internet banking experience, 92 respondents of the sample or 46 % had 2-4 old ages experience, 74 respondents or 37 % had 0-2 old ages and merely 34 respondents or 17 % had more than 5 old ages of Internet banking experience. In relation to the frequence of utilizing Internet, 110 respondents or 55 % had entree to Internet about one time a twenty-four hours, 62 respondents or 31 % had entree to Internet about a few times a hebdomad, while 18 respondents or 9 % had entree to Internet about one time a month and merely 10 respondents or 5 % had to entree to Internet about a few times a month. It shows that a big proportion of respondents really often utilizing Internet while most of respondents have at least 2 old ages of Internet banking experience.
Account information and balance question is ranked figure one among other Internet banking services. This is consistent with the old survey ( Tan & A ; Teo, 2000 ) , which found most of the respondents often utilizing and it is the most utile. Internet banking adoptive parents prefer to look into their history balance and information after any dealing is completed. Subsequent rank of the Internet banking services are financess reassign, measures payment, drumhead studies of minutess, check direction, loan application, fiscal planning and analysis and portion border trading.
In contrast, Internet banking merchandises and services that were found to be less utile included loan application, fiscal planning and analysis and portion border trading. Respondents prefer to acquire professional advice straight from bank staff instead than obtain the information through online.
4.3 Validity Analysis
Validity constructing is of import to set up right operational steps for the construct that are being studied. For increasing the concept cogency, a proper meeting with supervisor was conducted for discoursing the job and the questionnaire ‘s templet.Pilot testing was conducted after the questionnaires had been designed based on old research related to Internet banking acceptance.
Several stairss such as formulating, analysing, measuring the consequences after pilot testing was collected. There were few times of questionnaire amendment advised by supervisor, so respondents were understand to give most accurate and valuable response for this survey. Finally, all its ambiguities and jobs were removed and questionnaires were ready for distribution.
4.4 Reliability Analysis
The internal dependability as suggested by Nunnally ( 1978 ) for the graduated table determined by calculating the Cronbach ‘s alpha, with a minimal alpha degree of 0.60 ( Nunnally et Al.
; Hair et Al, 1998 ) as an index for equal internal consistence. Cronbach ‘s alpha is frequently used to verify the internal consistence. In this survey, dependability analysis was conducted to measure the Cronbach ‘s alpha values for all dimensions. The sensed properties hypothesized to be relevant to Internet banking acceptance are comparative advantage, compatibility, complexness, trialability and trust. The dependability trial shows that dependant and independent steps demonstrated sufficient dependability in footings of the cronbach ‘s alpha.Cronbach ‘s alpha was calculated for each graduated table. The Cronbach alpha estimated for independent variable such as comparative advantage is 0.
732 ; compatibility is 0.742 ; complexness is 0.740 ; trialability is 0.707 and trust is 0.812. Cronbach alpha of dependent variable such as acceptance is 0.780.
As the Cronbach ‘s alpha values for all variables range from 0.707 to 0.812, exceeds the minimal alpha of 0.6. Therefore, the variables are deemed to hold equal dependability for the following phase of cogency analysis. Dependability from our sample shows an acceptable degree of internet consistence ( I± & gt ; 0.
60 ) .
4.5 Correlation Analysis
The analysis of the bivariate correlativity shows all positive figures. This suggests that the correlativities are positive between Internet banking acceptance and its independent variables, such as comparative advantage, compatibility, complexness, trialability and trust. From the consequence, they are important at 0.01 % degree.In this survey, multiple additive arrested development analysis was used to prove the hypotheses. Five hypotheses were formulated for the survey.
The independent variables ( comparative advantage, compatibility, complexness, trialability and trust ) were regressed on “ acceptance ” as the dependant variable. The consequences indicate that comparative advantage, compatibility, complexness, trialability and trust with a important F value of 15.440 being important at P & lt ; 0.000. The R square value of 0.285, which indicates that approximately 28.
5 % of the discrepancy in the dependant variable is explained by the independent variables in the theoretical accounts. Detailss of the consequences show that independent variables such as comparative advantage, compatibility, complexness and trust are significantly positively associated with Internet banking acceptance ( H1, H2, H3, and H5 ) . In contrast, trialability is a weak forecaster with ( P & gt ; 0.05 ) and there is no important association between trialability and Internet banking acceptance, therefore, H4 could be rejected. In hypotheses proving session will further explicate and discourse about the consequences. The consequences of the arrested development analysis nowadayss in the tabular array 4.
7.The strength of the proposed relationship was assessed utilizing the several multiple additive arrested developments summarized in Table 4.7.H1:The greater the sensed comparative advantage of utilizing Internet banking services, the more likely that Internet banking will be adopted.
The Internet banking acceptance is jointly predicted by comparative advantage and the consequence shows that significantly positive relationship associated with comparative advantage and Internet banking acceptance ( beta= 0.138 ; p-value= 0.036 ) . It is similar to old findings ( Yuttapong et al.
, 2009 ; Khalil, 2007 ) , which have shown that the sensed comparative advantage of an invention has a positive consequence on the acceptance of Internet banking. Tan et al. , 2000 besides found the greater the sensed comparative advantage of utilizing Internet banking services, the more likely that Internet banking will be adopted.H2:The greater the sensed compatibility of Internet banking with one ‘s values, the more likely that Internet banking will be adopted.The arrested development analysis consequence shows that compatibility positively affects Internet banking acceptance ( beta=0.145 ; p-value= 0.
029 ) . The support for H3 is consistent with Tan et al. , 2000, which the greater the sensed compatibility of Internet banking with one ‘s values, the more likely that Internet banking will be adopted. Other research workers ( Yuttapong, 2009 ; Tat et al. , 2008 ; Khalil, 2007 ; Ndubisi et al. , 2006 ; Wungwanitchakorn, 2002 ) besides found that sensed compatibility has a positive relationship with the continue to utilize Internet banking.
Tornatzky et al. , 1982 indicates that an invention is more likely to be adopted when it is compatible with the person ‘s occupation duties and experiences. As references before, 63 % of respondents at least have 2 old ages adequate Internet banking experience with its back uping engineering therefore will be more single slopes to follow Internet banking.H3:The lowest the sensed complexness of utilizing Internet banking, the more likely that Internet banking will be adopted.
The relationship between perceived complexness and Internet banking acceptance was found to be important ( beta= 0.132 ; p-value= 0.029 ) , there by back uping H4. This consequence is expected since past literature ( Yuttapong et al. , 2009 ; Ndubisi et al. , 2006 ; wungwanitchakorn, 2002 ; Tan et al. , 2000 ; Cheung et al. , 2000 ) has systematically shown that sensed complexness has important and positive influence on the acceptance of Internet banking.
In the context of Internet banking acceptance, an person will therefore be more inclined to follow if he or she is knowing people and will experience Internet banking is easy to utilize. Based on the findings, most of respondents were by and large good educated with over 78 % keeping a Bachelor grade. Therefore, they have a certain minimal degree of cognition and proficient experience to follow the Internet banking.H4:The greater the trialability of Internet banking, the more likely that Internet banking will be adopted.The relationship between perceived trialability was non found to be important ( beta= 0.093 ; p-value= 0.209 & gt ; 0.
05 ) and there by rejecting H5. This determination is inconsistent with old findings ( Yuttapong et al. , 2009 ; Khalil, 2007 ; Ndubisi et al. , 2006 ; Wungwanitchakorn, 2002 ; Tan et al.
, 2000 ) , which reported that there is important relation between trialability and Internet banking acceptance.H5:Trust of utilizing Internet banking services positively affects the acceptance of Internet banking.Trust is the of import factor and major hindrance to the acceptance of Internet banking. The support for H1 ( beta= 0.138 ; p-value= 0.014 ) reflects similar statements in the Internet banking literature ( Tat et al. , 2008 ; Yahya, 2007 ; Siriluck et al.
, 2003 ) , which states that the sensed trust associated with Internet banking acceptance. Trust may impact edifice relationship in Internet banking environment due to holding a higher perceptual experience of hazards and uncertainnesss. Therefore, it is expected that merely an person who perceive utilizing Internet banking if they trust in the Internet banking system which provided by Bankss.
A in writing representation of the concluding structural theoretical account, which includes the coefficients and presented in FigureThe intent of this research is to suggest a combination of trust and Innovation Diffusion Theory ( IDT ) in a more comprehensive mode that jointly predicts user acceptance of Internet banking. As discussed earlier, Innovation diffusion theory examines how new thoughts or an invention addition widespread acceptance. There are several old research workers ( Yuttapong et al. , 2009 ; Ndubisi et al.
, 2006 ; Philip et al. , 2003 ; Black et al. , 2001 ) , which had been investigated research survey associating to the acceptance of Internet banking by using IDT. Unfortunately, a combination of trust and IDT research was hard to obtain. For farther analysis, this survey has verified that an extra trust is one of the important determiners of user acceptance of Internet banking. Sum of 200 sample size study from Internet banking users or erstwhile Internet banking users was conducted to through empirical observation analyze this research theoretical account.This survey shows that trust are about play an of import function in increasing user to utilize Internet banking.
A big coefficient as compared to other factors suggests its larger part in act uponing the acceptance of Internet banking. As discussed antecedently, phishing is still the chief menace to the Internet banking industry and had become more rampant each twelvemonth in Malaysia. Harmonizing to BNM ( 2008 ) , 94 % of Internet banking fraud instances reported. Phishing onslaughts is a sort of societal technology which causes people executing actions, such as unwraping confidential information like user-names and watchwords to the aggressor.
The latest in February 2010, Internet users are advised by CyberSecurity Malaysia to be wary of electronic mails from Bankss which masquerading as a trusty entity inquiring them to account update, password reset or to uncover any personal information in relation to banking via electronic mails. Based on these instances, unbarred environment is still unsolved by Bankss and purpose of possible adoptive parent to utilize Internet banking will be decreased.Banks are responsible to educate possible adoptive parent or Internet banking user to increase their consciousness on Internet security. Banks should direct a notice to public sing the phishing incidents, so people is ready to disregard bogus electronic mails and will non be cheated one time they have received.
Besides the Bankss duties, authorities had taken stairss to battle the cozenages include puting up CyberSecurity and the preparation of the National Cyber Security Policy. Further, CyberSecurity has developed a plan called CyberSafe, which the populace can acquire information on Internet safety issue.The findings show that Internet banking acceptance can be predicted by comparative advantage, compatibility, complexness and trust but non by trialability. Trialability is found to hold no important relationship with Internet banking acceptance. There are some possible ground of no relationship between trialability and acceptance. First, possible adoptive parent feels it is inconvenient for the test because they need to do a enrollment at physical presense such as ATM machine and besides on the Internet. They feel that it is clip blowing and they are unwilling to seek Internet banking for at least a month. Besides, Internet banking is non like a free gift that they can acquire easy from any supermarket or someplace else for the test.
Unfortunately, enrollment is needed if clients intend to give a test to the Internet banking. Therefore, trialability has no significantly influence Internet banking acceptance in Malaysia.In fact, trialability may non give clients the necessary assurance if they are discerning about the Internet banking services. Customers prefer to obtain the feedback or remark of Internet banking advantages straight from household, friends, co-workers, Internet and etc instead than experience to seek an invention merchandise for a short period of clip. Presents, clients can acquire a list of advantages of Internet banking by shoping the banking web site through online.
Therefore, possible adoptive parent is able to roll up adequate information of an invention service and measure the benefits of an invention service before they intend to follow Internet banking. Furthermore, clients feel that certain frights of unknown may be increased if clients are given the chance to seek the new invention.
Chapter 5: Decision
Based on the consequences and findings obtained in the survey, a treatment of theoretical and practical deduction will be presented on this chapter. There are some recommendations for Bankss will be provided besides. Contribution of this survey, its restrictions and future research will be presented in this chapter. Last, decision will be presented to stop of this thesis.
1 Managerial Implication and recommendation
This survey makes important parts to knowledge in relation to client ‘s perceptual experience of factors act uponing Internet banking acceptance. In these findings, Bankss need to play a prima function in act uponing the perceptual experience of possible Internet banking users and its acceptance rate. The result of this survey has several recommendation will be made which may be utile for Bankss in order to supply and better better services to clients.Build client ‘s acknowledgment of Internet banking. Banks should do their client more cognizant of Internet banking and stress chiefly on the advantages of Internet banking services. The advantages of Internet banking services such as convenience, clip salvaging, low cost services, user-friendly services, information handiness and etc should provided by Bankss.
Internet banking should let clients to finish their banking dealing at any location, at any clip and at any twenty-four hours by the manner provides a low cost services and easiness to utilize the services.Supply a service consistent with client values, socio-cultural beliefs, and yesteryear or present experience. An Internet banking service likes ability to suit client ‘s life style and working manner, which consistent with their yesteryear and present experience should available in the banking industry. Therefore, Bankss should understand deeply on clients ‘ demands through a study or probe in term of penchant, instruction degree, income degree and etc for a big of population in Malaysia.
Further, Bankss should see the societal factors, the user experience and usage in Internet banking puting when developing services for Internet banking intent.Attract clients to the web site. Internet banking requires a certain minimal degree of proficient experience to finish each banking activity through online. Therefore, Bankss should guarantee that the Internet banking services are unsophisticated, easy to utilize and simple to run into client ‘s demand. A simple presentation of Internet banking services should provided by Bankss to their clients, which as a mention how to utilize such services.
So, clients will experience larning to utilize Internet banking service is simple for them and does non necessitate a batch of mental attempt, therefore increase acceptance rate of Internet banking. In add-on, more apprehensible and clear on Internet banking site, more clients will experience they are comfy to utilize Internet banking services and go on to utilize.Build client assurance and better the trustworthiness repute of Bankss. Banks should supply clear methods for presentment of any unauthorised dealing and immediate incident response to minimise the loss. So, clients can execute their banking activities through online in low hazard, secure and safe Internet banking system. Besides, proper design of the web sites and educate the client consciousness seem to offer proper manner to construct client assurance.
5.2 Restrictions and future research
There are some experience have been undertook during the thesis procedure.
There is still room for farther probe into the acceptance of Internet banking services. Some constructional suggestions have presented for future research workers.In this survey, 200 of samples size were selected as respondents for finding the factors act uponing the acceptance of Internet banking. A lower limit of sample size was adopted sing sensible. But, if this study could be done in a big of sample size, the consequences will be closer to existent, important and accurate.
Target respondent was selected which has focused on pupils and workers who are inexperienced or erstwhile users of Internet banking. For future surveies, research workers may concentrate on pupils and workers who are non-Internet banking users or ne’er use Internet banking services. Therefore, research workers can do a comparing in analysis between erstwhile Internet banking user and non-Internet banking user to look into acceptance of such service, could be better applied to general population.
More inside informations of consequence can be analyzed in term of the factors act uponing their adaptation determination.Extension of theoretical model should be done by future research workers. There are some theoretical accounts such as TAM, TRA, TPB and IDT can be integrated to analyze the Internet banking acceptance. These theories portion some similarities although the TAM, TRA and TPB and IDT focus on different determiners to explicate the consumer behaviour in engineering acceptance. For illustration, the sensed utility in TAM is similar to comparative advantage in IDT. The concept of sensed easiness of usage in TAM is evidently close to the complexness concept in IDT.
A comparing of different theoretical accounts or theories can be made by future research workers to analyze the factor act uponing acceptance of Internet banking. Through this comparing, farther justification in assorted theoretical accounts can be obtained therefore a better consequence could be huffy in finding which theoretical account has significantly act uponing the existent acceptance of Internet banking.
The primary aim of this survey was to use Roger ‘s theory of Innovation diffusion to analyze the influence on Internet banking acceptance among Malayan users. An extra trust was applied besides together with theory of Innovation diffusion in this survey for acquiring important consequence. This survey has found that trust significantly affect acceptance of Internet banking. Internet banking is considered a new platform in presenting the banking services virtually.
The possible hazardous environment like phishing is still emerged.Persons more concern a high degree of trust from Bankss. To maximise Internet banking acceptance, Bankss are required to explicate and develop an effectual method or scheme to derive strong relationship with clients in order to better clients ‘ trust in Internet banking.Besides, Roger ‘s four perceived properties ( comparative advantage, compatibility, complexness and trialability ) of an invention have found that these properties significantly affect acceptance of Internet banking in this survey with the exclusion of trialability. Therefore, Bankss should chiefly concentrate on these facets of properties to farther better in Internet banking services and promote possible adoptive parent and erstwhile user to follow Internet banking.
Out of four invention properties measured, merely the relationship between perceived trialability of utilizing Internet banking services and acceptance is non supported. One possible ground may be due to built-in feature of Malayan Internet banking users.