Chapter 8- Cinema

Narrative
(fictional cinema)
tells a story.
Follows the rules of literary construction in that it usually begins with expository material, adds levels of complications, builds to a climax, and ends with a resolution of all the plot elements.

Documentary
attempts to record actuality using primarily either a sociological or journalistic approach.
Does not use reenactment by professional actors and often is shot as the event is occurring at the time and place of its occurrence.

Absolute film
(avant garde film)
exists for its own sake, for its record of movement or form.
does not tell a story, although documentary techniques can be used in some instances.

Plasticity
the quality of the film that enables it to be cut, spliced, and ordered according to the needs of the film and the desires of the filmmaker. Could be the greatest difference between cinema and the other arts.

Cut
the joining together of shots during the editing process.

Jump Cut
a cut that breaks the continuity of time by jumping forward from one part of the action to another part that obviously is separated from the first by an interval of time, location, or camera position. Used for shock effect or to call attention to detail.

Form cut
cuts from an image in a shot to a different object that has a similar shape or contour; is used primarily to make a smoother transition from one shot to another. (D.W. Griffith’s silent film “Intolerance” attackers are using a battering ram to smash in the gates of Babylon)

Montage
can be considered the most aesthetic use of the cut in film. It acts as a indication of compression or elongation of time. Used as a rapid succession of images to illustrate an association of ideas.

Establishing shots
is a long shot introduced at the beginning of a scene to establish the interrelationship of details, a time, or a place, which will be elaborated on in subsequent shorts.

MAster shot
is a single shot of an entire piece of action, taken to facilitate the assembly of the component shots of which the scene will finally be composed.

Long shot
is a shot taken with the camera a considerable distance from the subject.

Medium shot
is taken nearer to the subject .

Close-up shot
is a shot taken with the camera quite near the subject.

Bridging shot
is a shot inserted in the editing of a scene to cover a brief break in the continuity of the scene.

D.W. Griffith
was the first giant of the motion picture industry and genius of film credited with making film an art form.
expanded the horizon of film with social commentary.
introduced or refined all the basic techniques of moviemaking.
is credited with many innovations in cinematography including, arguably perfecting the close up, the fade-in, the fade-out, soft focus, high and low angle shots, and panning. In film editing, invented flashback and crosscutting.

Objective viewpoint in film
reflects an omnipotent viewer, roughly analogous to the technique of third person narrative in literature. Allows us to watch the action through the eyes of a universal spectator.

Subjective viewpoint in film
More deeply in a scene. j
They present the scene as if we were actually participating in it, and present the action from the filmmaker’s perspective. Analogous to the first person narrative technique.

Cutting within the frame
used as a method to avoid the editing process. Create it through actor movement, camera movement, or a combination of the two. It allows the scene to progress more smoothly and used most often on television.

A dissolve
occurs when the fade-out and the fade-in are done simultaneously and the scene momentarily overlaps.

Cross-cutting
alternates between two separate actions related by theme, mood, or plot but usually occurring within the same period of time.
Creates suspense.

Chiaroscuro lighting
Cast shadows or atmospheric lighting.
help to create a mood, particularly in films made without the use of color.

Cinema Verite (CV)
Natural or outdoor light is used and the camera is handheld, an unsteadiness in movement results.
documentary films or sequences photographed for newsreels or television or new programming.
genre of film where real people, not actors are filmed going about their daily lives

Parallel development
draws an ironic comparison by juxtoposing actions. Developing two separate actions, the filmmaker allows us to draw our own inferences thereby add a deeper meaning to the film.

Neorealism
Post-WW2 movement in art, film, and literature.
In film, it used hidden cameras and emphasized an objective viewpoint and documentary style.

which film and director are associated with Neorealism
Roberto Rosselini’s “Open City”

Structural rhthym
reflects the manner in which the various shots join together and juxtapose with other cinematic images, both visual and aural.

how symbolism is used in the films of Kurosawa
uses flames as a changing symbol. “The fire continues to symbolize the seemingly insurmountable obstacle between them, but it also shifts to suggest the tremendous passion that consumes them.”

Rack of differential focus
If the main object of interest appears clearly while the remainder of the scene blurs or appears out of focus. With this technique, the filmmaker can focus the audience;s attention on one element within a shot.

Track (first minute)
is a shot taken as the camera moves in the same direction, at the same speed, and in the same place as the object being photographed.

Dolly shots
moves the camera toward or away from the subject.

Direct address in film
represents another method used to draw attention.
the actors rarely look at or talk directly to the audience.

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