Type: Critical Essays
Sample donated: Janice Townsend
Last updated: October 5, 2019
Tiffany Baker October 22, 2011 Period 0 Chapter 9 Outline The Confederation and the Constitution I.
The Pursuit of Equality A. Fight of separation of church and state with the Congregational Church, and the Anglican Church. 1.
The Anglican Church struggled for divorce between religion and government. 2. Thomas Jefferson and his co-reformers won a complete victory with the passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. B. The egalitarian sentiments challenged the institution of slavery. 1. Several northern states either abolished slavery outright or provided for the gradual emancipation of blacks.
2.No states south of Pennsylvania abolished slavery. 3. In North and South, the law of discriminated harshly against freed blacks and slaves alike. 4. Emancipated African Americans could be barred from purchasing property, holding certain jobs, and educating their children. They can’t have interracial marriage. C.
Women’s Role 1. Some women served in the military, and could vote. 2. Most of the women in the Revolutionary era still did traditional women’s work. 3.
Education for women expanded, in the expectation that educated wifes, and mothers could better cultivate the virtues demanded by the Republic in the husbands, daughters, and sons.II. Constitution Making in the States A. Continental Congress wanted the colonies to draft new constitutions 1. The sovereignty of these new states, according to the theory of republicanism, would rest on the authority of the people. B. Constitutions 1.
The documents Americans drafted were contracts that defined the powers of government, as did the old charters. 2. As written documents the state constitutions were intended to represent a fundamental law, superior to the transient whims of ordinary legislation. Most of these included bills of rights.Most required annual elections or legislators. They created weak executive and judicial branches.
C. State Capitals 3. The new states legislature’s influence was powerfully felt in their several successful movements to relocate state capitals from the haughty eastern seaports into the less pretentious interior. 4. In the Revolutionary Era, the capitals of New Hampshire, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia were all moved westward. 5. These geographical shifts portended political shifts that deeply discomfited many more conservative Americans.
III.Economic Crosscurrents A. Economic drawbacks 1. American ships were barred from Britain and British West Indies harbors. 2. Fisheries were disrupted, and bounties for ships’ stores had ended. B.
New Commercial Outlets 1. Americans could trade freely with foreign nations. 2. Enterprising Yankee shippers ventured profitably into the Baltic and China Seas. C. War 1. War had spawned demoralizing extravagance, speculation, and profiteering, with profits for some as indecently high as 300 percent.
2. State government borrowed more during the war than they can afford to repay. . Runaway inflations had been ruinous to many citizens, and congress had failed in its feeble attempts to curb economic laws.
IV. A Shaky Start Toward Union A. Disruptive forces stalked the land 1. The departure of the conservative Tory elements left the political system inclined towards experimentation and innovation.
B. The thirteen states were alike in governmental structure and functioned under similar constitutions. 1. Americans enjoyed a rich political inheritance, derived partly from Britain and from their homegrown devices for self-government. 2.They were blessed with political leaders of a high order in men like George Washington, James Madison, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Alexander Hamilton.
V. Creating a Confederation A. Second Continental Congress of Revolutionary days was more than a conference of ambassadors from thirteen states. 1.
It was without constitutional authority and in general did only what it dared to do, though it asserted some control over military affairs and foreign policy. 2. The thirteen states were sovereign, for they coined money, raised armies and navies, and erected tariff barriers. B.
Articles of Confederation . Convinced France that American had a genuine government in the making. 2. The Articles were not ratified by all thirteen states until 1778, less than eight months before the victory at Yorktown. 3. Maryland took until March 1, 1781 to approve of the Articles of confederation. VI.
The Articles of Confederation: America’s First Constitution A. Articles of Confederation 1. Weak 2. Provided for a looser confederation or “firm league of friendship. ” 3. Provided a landmark in government 4.
a significant steppingstone toward the present Constitution 5.Idea of union and held the states together B. Congress 1. Congress was very weak 2. Because Congress had no power of commerce, the states were free to establish different, and conflicting, law regarding tariffs and navigation. 3.
Congress couldn’t enforce tax-collection programs 4. Congress appealed in vein to the state for protection after the Pennsylvania soldiers marched to Philadelphia and made a threatening demonstration in front of Independence Hall. 5.
The New Congress was worse than the old one. VII. Landmarks in Land Laws A. Land Ordinance of 1785 1.First red-letter law 2. Provided that the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and that the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national dept. 3.
The area must be surveyed before sale and settlement. 4. It was to be divided into townships six miles square. B. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 1. Related to the governing of the Old Northwest. 2. Law came to grips with the problem of how a nation should deal with its colonies – the same problem that had bedeviled the king and Parliament in London.
3. The solution was a judicious compromise: temporary tutelage, then permanent equality. 4.
It forbade slavery in the Old Northwest. VIII. The World’s Ugly Ducklings A. Britain 1. Declined to make a commercial treaty or to repeal its ancient Navigation Laws. 2. Closed their profitable West Indies trade to the United States, though the Yankees, with their time-tested skill in smuggling, illegal partook nonetheless.
3. the continued the trade with the indies along the northern border B. Spain 1. It was enemy to Britain 2. It controlled the mouth of the all-important Mississippi. 3. In 1784, Spain closed the river to American commerce, threatening the West with strangulation. 4.
Spain claimed a large area north of the Gulf of Mexico. C. France 1. Demanded the repayment of money loaned during the war and restricted trade with their bustling West Indies and other ports.
IX. The Horrid Specter of Anarchy A. States were getting out of hand 1. Some were levying duties on goods from their neighbors; New York. They taxed firewood from Connecticut and cabbages from New Jersey. 2. Some states were starting to grind out depreciated paper currency, and a few of them had passed laws sanctioning the semi worthless “rag money.
” B. Shay’s Rebellion 1. Western Massachusetts in 1786 . Impoverished backcountry farmers were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. 3. Led by Captain Daniel Shays, these desperate debtors demanded that the state issued paper money, lighten taxes, and suspend property takeovers. C.
Massachusetts actions 1. Raised a small army 2. At Springfield three Shaysites were killed, and one was wounded. 3. Daniel Shay was condemned to death but was later pardoned. 4. Massachusetts legislature passed debtor-relief laws of the kind Shays had championed, confirming Thomas Jefferson’s fear of “democratic despotism.
D. Critical conditions under the Confederation 1. Conservatives exaggerated the seriousness of the nations’ plight.
They were eager to persuade their fellow citizens to amend the Articles of Confederation in favor of a muscular central government. 2. Friends and critics of the Confederation agreed that it needed strengthening. 1. An adoption of a new constitution certainly spared the Republic much costly indecision, and turmoil.
X. A Convention of “Demigods” A. Control of commerce touched off the chain reaction that led to constitutional convention 1.Nine states appointed delegates, but five were finally represented. 2.
Alexander Hamilton, brilliantly saved the convention from complete failure by engineering the adoption of his report; it called upon Congress to summon a convention to meet in Philadelphia the next year, not to deal with commerce alone, but to bolster the entire fabric of the Articles of Confederation. B. Congress, though slowly and certainly dying in New York City, was reluctant to take a step that might hasten its day of reckoning.
1. Every state chose representatives, except for Rhode Island; these leaders were all appointed by the state legislatures. . Sessions were held in complete secrecy, delegates knew that they would generate heated differences and they did not want to advertise their won dissensions or put the ammunition of arguments into opposition. C. The caliber of the participants was extraordinarily high—“demigods,” called by Jefferson. D.
Most of the fiery Revolutionary leaders of 1776 were absent; Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Thomas Paine were in Europe; Samuel Adams and John Hancock were not elected by Massachusetts and Patrick Henry declined to attend on the behalf of Virginia.XI. Patriots in Philadelphia A. The fifty-five delegates were a conservative body: 1. Lawyers, merchants, shippers, land speculators, and moneylenders; not a single spokesperson was present from the poorer debtor groups; nineteen owned slaves; and they were young but experienced.
2. They hoped to crystallize the last evaporating pools of revolutionary idealism into a stable political structure that would endure; they strongly desired a firm, dignified, and respected government—they believed in republicanism but sought to protect America. . They were determined to preserve the union, forestall anarchy, and ensure security of life and property against dangerous uprisings by the “mobocracy.
” XII. Hammering Out a Bundle of Compromises A. The delegates would completely scrap the old Articles of Confederation inside of revise 1. “The large-state plan” was first the framework of the Constitution; its essence was the representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress should be based on population. 2.
The small-state plan” which provided for equal representation in a unicameral Congress bys states, regardless of size and population, as under the existing Articles of Confederation. 3. The weaker states feared that under the Virginia scheme, the stronger states would band together and lord it over the rest. B. “Great Compromise” of the convention was agreed upon. 1.
The larger states were conceded representation by population in the House of Representatives. 2. The smaller states were appeased by equal representation in the Senate in which each state would have two senators.
3.The new Constitution provided for a strong, independent executive in the presidency. 1. The president was to be military commander in chief and to have wide powers of appointment to domestic offices including judgeships and veto power over legislation. C. The Constitution as drafted was a bundle of compromises. 1. The South thought that the vote less slave populations counted as people but the North replied no arguing that slaves were not citizens.
2. As a compromise between total representation and none at all, it was decided that a slave might count as three-fifths of a person; memorable “three-fifths compromise. XIII. Safeguards for Conservation A. The area of agreement was large or the convention would have disbanded. 1. Economically, the members of the Constitutional Convention generally saw eye to eye; they demanded sound money and the protection of private property.
2. Politically, they were in basic agreement; they favored a stronger government, with three branches and with checks and balances among them. 3. The convention was virtually unanimous in believing that manhood-suffrage democracy—government—was something to be feared and fought. B.
Daniel Shays still frightened the conservative-minded delegates. . The federal judges were to be elected indirectly by the Electoral College. 2. The senators were to be chosen indirectly by state legislatures. 3. Only in the case of one-half of one of the three great branches—the House of Representatives—were qualified citizens permitted to choose their officials by vote. C.
The virtue of the people was to be the ultimate guarantor of liberty, justice, and order. D. At the end of seventeen muggy weeks May 25 to September 17, 1787, only 42 of the original 55 members remained to sign the Constitution; three of the forty-two refused.
XIV.The Clash of Federalists and Antifederalists A. The antifederalists who opposed the stronger federal government were arrayed against the federalists 1. A crew gathered in the antifederalist camp behind prominent revolutionaries like Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee; their followers included the poorest classes and were joined by paper-moneyites and debtors (forced to pay debts) 2. Federalists had power and influence on their side; they enjoyed the support of such commanding figures as George Washington and Benjamin Franklin.
1.They were wealthier than the antifederalists; more educated, and better organized (press control). B. Antifederalists voiced objections to the “gilded trap,” the Constitution. ” 1.
They charged that the sovereignty of the states was being submerged and that the freedoms of the individual were jeopardized by the absence of a bill of rights. 2. They decried the dropping of annual elections for congressional representatives, the erecting of a federal stronghold, the creation of a standing army, the omission of any reference to God, and the questionable procedure of ratifying with only nine states. XV.The Great Debate in the States A. Special elections were held in the various states for members of the ratifying conventions 1.
The candidate’s federalists of antifederalist were elected on the basis of their pledges for or against the Constitution; four small states quickly accepted the Constitution. 2. Pennsylvania, was the first large state to act, but not until high-handed irregularities had been employed by the federalist legislature in calling a convention. 3. Massachusetts provided an acid test; if the Constitution had failed in Massachusetts, the entire movement might easily have bogged down.The Boston ratifying convention at first contained an antifederalist majority which included Shaysites, and Samuel Adams. 4. The absence of a bill of rights alarmed the anti-federalists but the federalists gave them solemn assurance that the first congress would add such a safeguard by amendment and ratification was then secured in Massachusetts.
B. Three more states fell into line. 1. New Hampshire, whose convention at first had contained a strong antifederalist majority; the federalists cleverly arranged a prompt adjournment and then won over enough wavers to secure ratification. C.
Nine states—but Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island—were under the “new federal roof” and the document was officially adopted on June 21, 1788. XVI. The Four Laggard States A. Virginia provided fierce antifederalist opposition; Patrick Henry professed to see the document the death warrant of liberty. 1. George Washington, James Madison, and John Marshall, on the federalist side, lent influential support; with New Hampshire about to ratify, the new Union was formed. 2. After exciting debate in the state convention, ratification carried, 89 to 79.
B. Alexander Hamilton shipped up support for federalism. . Joined by john Jay and James Madison in penning a masterly series of articles for the NY newspapers. 2.
The convention ratified the document by the close count of 30 to 27 and it approved thirty-two proposed amendments and issued a call for yet another convention to modify the Constitution in the following months and years. XVII. A Conservative Triumph A. The minority had triumphed—twice; a militant minority of American radicals had engineered the military Revolution that cast off the unwritten British constitution. B. Eleven states, in effect, had seceded form the Confederation, leaving two still in.C.
A majority had not spoken; only about one-fourth of the adult white males in the country, chiefly the propertied people, had voted for delegates to the ratifying conventions. D. The federalists were convinced that by setting the drifting ship of state on a steady course, they could restore economic and political stability. E. Unlike the antifederalists, who believed that the sovereignty of the people resided in a singled branch of government—the legislature—the federalists contended that every branch—executive, judiciary, and legislature—effectively represented the people.