Chapter Two : The Sun By : C. Page, K. Contresas A. Lopez, H Mikel Many Scientists think the sun and therest of the solar system formed from a giant, rotating cloud of gas and dustknown as the solar nebula and believe the sun to be approximately 4.
6 billionyears old. As the solar nebula collapsed because of its gravity, it spun fasterand flattened into a disk like a pancake. Most of the material was pulledtoward the center to form a protostar that would eventually become our sun. Thesun lies at the heart of the solar system, where it is by far the largestobject. It holds 99.8 % of the solar system mass and is roughly 109 times thediamiter of the earth- about 1 Million Earths could fit in inside the sun.
If ahollow sun was filled up with spherical earths then around 960,000 would fitinside. On the other hand if these Earths were squished inside with no wastedspace then around 1,300,000 would fit inside . The Sun’s surface area is 11,990times that of the Earth’s. The visible part of the sun is about 10,000 degreesfahrenheit ( 5,500 degrees celsius ) while tempetures in the core reach morethan 27 million F ( 15 million C ), driven by nuclear reaction. One would needto explode 100 billion tons of dynamite every second to match the energyproduced by the sun, according to Nasa. The Sun is a huge, glowing sphere of hotgas. Most of this gas is hydrogen ( about 70% ) the helium ( about 28 % ).
Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen make up 1.5 % and the other 0.5 % is made up ofsmall amounts of many other elements such as a neon, iron, silicon, magnesiumand sulfur. The sun shines because it is turning hydrogen into helium vid theprocess of nuclear fusion in its extremely not core. This means that as timesgoes on , the sun has less hydrogen and more heluium.
The big question is ,will the sun ever burnout , apparently it will the sun has used about half of its hydrogen fuelin the last 4.6 billion years since its birth. Its has enough hydrogen to last about5 billion years.The sun’s core is a massive volume ofenergy that gets released and radiates outward towards the surface of the sunand into the solar system beyond it. This means that astimes goes on , the sun has less hydrogen and more heluium.
The big question is ,will the sun ever burnout , apparently it will the sun has used about half of its hydrogen fuelin the last 4.6 billion years since its birth. Its has enough hydrogen to lastabout 5 billion years. The amount of radiation given off bythe Sun changes with solar activity like solar flares or Sunspots. Solaractivity is known to vary in cycles, like the 11- yrs sunspot cycle (and longer cycles).
Some scientists have wondered if changes in our weather andclimate might be linked with short or long term solar cycles. Weather is thecurrent atmosheric conditions, including temperture, rainfall, wind andhumidity for a given area, while climate is the general weather conditions overa longer amount of time.. The core of the Sunis the region that extends from the center to about 20-25% of the solar radius.It is here, where energy is produced by hydrogen atoms (H) beingconverted into molecules of helium (HE).
The core is the only part ofthe Sun that produces an appreciable amount of heat through fusion. The Sunalso produces light by a nuclear reaction called fusion. As atoms of hydrogencombine to form helium, they produce vast amounts of heat and light. When allthe hydrogen has been burned, the sun will continue for about 130 million moreyears, burning helium, during which time it will expand to the point that itwill engulf Mercury and Venus and the Earth. The Earth benefits from the Sun becauseenergy from the sun is very important to to the Earth. The sun warms ourplanet, heating the surface, the oceans and the atmosphere. This energy to theatmoshere is one of the primary drivers to our weather. Our climate is alsostrongly affected by the amount of solar radiation received at Earth.
About a third is reflected back into space by clouds andsnow. A little over 40% warms earth. While about 25% is used by the watercycle. Winds and ocean currents absorbs about 1% while all the plants on earthuse only about 0.023% for photosynthesis! SPACE MATH Saturn 01. Find AU for Saturn =9.6 AU2.Find out how much 1 AUcarries for miles.
= 1AUcarries 93 millionmilles3.Multiply how many AU’sSaturn has by how many 1AU holds =93x 9.6= 89284.Add 6 zeros after thenumber: 89280000005.Since Saturn’s AU (9.
6) hasa decimal more the decimal to the left once. =89280000006. Move the decimal untilit’s in between the 8 and 9 = 8.
9280000007. Count how many times you movedthe decimal = 8×8.Add in scientific notation.Take the zeros off, but leave the decimal. =8.
928.9. Then add x10 to the numberof counts you from moving the decimal.= 8x = 8.928×108 miles10.
You pronounce this likethis= eight point nine hundred twenty eight times ten to the eight power.