Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Barry Dixon
Last updated: September 15, 2019
Chapter4 Presentation, Analysisand Interpretation of Data Thischapterpresents, analyzes and interpret the data gathered.
The main objective is todetermine the practices of the Matigsalug tribe in maternal and childcarepractices. This chapter follows the presentation of the problems set in chapter1. Maternal and ChildcarePractices among the Matigsalug Tribe The maternal andchildcare practices determined the practices and actions observed in the communityin taking good care both the mother and the child. In Matigsalugcommunity especially the women in remote areas do not practice the modern techniques ofattaining maternal and child health care. The Matigsalug women followthe culture that their tribe have done for so many years.
Modern medical techniques are not the appropriate way of using thematernal and child health care, instead they rather choose their traditionalway. According to Ramos (2012), the traditional beliefs and customs arereligious acts related to health care and, child rearing, nutrition andsafety. Frame 1 illustrates theexcerpts of the responses of the respondents on maternal health care during pregnancy. Frame 1Maternal Health care during Pregnancy (Participant 1,2,3,4,5 and 6) “Due pegkeen wey menge delemetan ne para pareisek te bate seled te getek te iney, seini ka “kelep” “kalumenga’ ‘wey dalid te abaca”. (There are food and herbs that when you eat or drink the baby inside the womb well not grow big the kelep” “kalumenga” and “root of abaca.) “keilangan ne kene eg inum te mge pepsi wey eg keen te pan, me malambu ne mge pegkeen , iling te ngalap te weyig te salug, ka peit wey duma pad, keilangan ne kene man e eg pakeenen te tinuug, (Avoid drinking soft drinks and avoid eating “paitan fish” in the salug river and never grilled the fish.) “Minsan dakel e ka getek te iney , keilangan ne trabahu te minsan nekey neg kehulinganan eyew kene eg dakel ka bate te gete te iney.
(Even if their stomach is already big they still work at the farm, so that the baby will not grow too big) Theresponses in Frame 1 show that their culture providesthem concrete faith to continue what was practiced by their elders.Matigsalug women are very caring to their children and also caring for themselves.They are very dependent on the environment’s natural resources for the reasonthat the environment provides the needs of Matigsalug women. Their significantknowledge and practices in times of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum arestill present even though there are already modern health institutions that areavailable. They still stick to their traditional ways of living.
As cited byRamos (2012) the use of indigenous knowledge and practices is more popularparticularly in the remote areas and communities where there is no healthinstitution. Matigsalugwomen also prohibit on foods that they must avoid. This was supported by Andan(2007) that in Arumanun culture, a child’s health care on the womb depends onhow the woman takes care of herself knowing that she is carrying a life. Themother should be free from any worries and stressful activities. To assure thebaby’s good health in the womb, the choice of food is the most important factorthat the mother should carefully observe. Nutritious foods are needed for themother to produce milk for the baby. Matigsalug women worked on the farm toassist their husband to sustain their basic needs for their family. Even ifthey are pregnant they still work and support theactivities on farming like, planting, harvesting and weeding.
Unexpectedly, one of the participant said that working on the farm is anotherway to exercise and regulate the size of the baby. Fromthe Isneg community, a woman continues her dailychores, including pounding of rice and working in farm. Sometimes, it is in thefarm where the women give birth. Female relatives attend to a woman duringchildbirth (Ethnography of the major Ethno linguistic Groups in Cordillera,2003).The Matigsalug women are strong enough to work even if they are pregnant.
They donot let their husband carry the entire burden tosustain their basic needs.The Matigsalug women believed that there are herbs that when they drink,the baby inside the womb will not grow too big. There’s a danger when the sizeof the baby is too big. The Matigsalug women used herbal medicine made from the bark of the “kelup”, “kalumenga” and “root of abaca” to regulate the size ofthe baby. The mentioned medicinal herbs are boiled to produce tea whichthe pregnant woman drinks regularly. When awoman is pregnant she observed certain taboos to ensure her welfare and that ofher child (Ethnography of the major Ethno Linguistic Groups inCordillera, 2003).Theherbs provide the mother with strength and would not suffer too much indelivering the baby. The elders usually advised that the mother must take thetraditional medicine so that the baby will not grow too big inside the womb.
There is the possibility that when the mother has delayed birth, the babyinside the womb will be suffocated and may lead to death. Another practice of theMatigsalug women during pregnancy is to avoid drinking soft drinks to prevent infections and toavoid eating “paitan” or fish fromthe Salug River. Aside from these foods, only meat and seasoning are not to betaken in to regulate the size growth of the baby inside the womb.
One participantemphasized the idea of not grilling the fish for thesame reason to control the size of the baby they believed it is not good forthe expectant mother. They believed that the herbs will help them to attainhealthy pregnancy and they would not suffer too much pain during the delivery. They believed that the practices of theirelders were true and proven that until now it stillexists and used by the community. The Matigsalug women preserved the indigenousknowledge of their ancestors even if they were already exposed to the modernpractices. Maternal Practices during Delivery Frame 2 showsthe maternal practices during delivery done by the Matigsalug women. They areextra careful in making the baby safe. Their responses are recorded in theframe.
Frame 2Maternal practices during Childbirth. (Participants 1,2,3,4,5 and 6) “Wey ke eg panggeram e ka iney, eg andam te menge “hamit” eye wig saput te bate ne iyam pad eg lesut” . (If the due comes, they prepare a piece of cloth or ( hamit) to wrap to the new born baby) “Ke mananey eg lesut ka inulunan te bate, eg angey te butilya ne due tahu ne ininit weyig wey eg paragket te getek te iney wey ig dasek dasek” (One way to ease the pain is putting some bottle with warm water and put in the abdomen of the pregnant mother) “Ke iyan eg gun a ka beled te bate, eg kebengen ka tindiisek ne kemel eyew eg libud te inugpaan” (if the hands of the baby will come out first, just pinch so that it will return in the proper position) Duringlabor the mother experienced pain in her hips and the lower part of abdomen. Asstated by Morales (2011), when a mother was in her labor, she starts becomesweaty when the baby is about to come out. Certain practice done during labor is “Palina”. It is made by burning the “Gilid sa purtahan” or the edge of thedoor also “Baba sa Galon” or mouth of the bottle. Burning or “Palina” and “Paaso” or smoking in frontof the mothers reproductive organ. They believed that smoke will help make thebaby come out easily.
Frame2 shows that most of the participants are already prepared suring the time of childbirth. Significantlysome of the participants are bringing a piece of cloth, to use as wrap of thebaby when they deliver anywhere and anytime because they are not awarewhat is the exact time and date to deliver. One of the participants narratedher experience that whileshe is on the road she unexpectedly give birth and manage her own delivery.The Matigsalug mother always prepares a piece of cloth or “Hamit” to usein wrapping of the newborn baby. The Matigsalug mothers had noidea when they deliver their baby that is why they are always prepared.
In particular, theMatigsalug women are always prepared on whatto do if they could deliver the baby while they are working in field. Through the indigenousknowledge, they know what to do in times of emergencywhen they deliver the baby and it is not in theproper place, like when they are in the middle of field. The Matigsalug womenare taught to push down a portion of their abdomen.
This act of pushing downhelps the baby to come out (Usman, 1987). The cutting of the umbilical cord isdone by using sharpened and thinned bamboo. Another practice observed by the Matigsalug women is to put water,contained in the bottle in the mother’s abdomen. The water in the bottle shouldbe warm. The purpose of doing their practice is toease the mother’s pain caused by delivery. This will ease the pain experienceby the mother. In other instances, the traditional midwife (mangunguyamo) performs a “tawal” or ritual prayer over a glass ofwater. After the prayer, the mother who just delivered the baby drinks thewater.
Another ritual is called “palat dioban” with the purpose of ensuring normal birth or delivery (EthnoLinguistic Group in Cordillera, 2003). Theparticipants shared their difficult experiences like when the hand of the babycame out first, they just pinch the hand and it goes back. One very notableexperience of one of the participants during child birth is when the hands ofthe baby come out first. She just managed herself to deliver her baby safely.The excerpt of the experience is reflected below by Teresita Alub, the keyinformant. “Kas kediey nig anak te neke un-a ka belad te bate kan himu ku in sel eyku ka paa ku kayi te lieg ku wey nig weil weil a eyew eg ka plastar ka batekayit getek ku” (Terisita Alub)” (Letting her lay down andput her feet on her shoulder and shake her body so that the baby inside thewomb will its natural position.) This particular experience of the Matigsalug mother isan indication that they have the idea on how to deliver their baby safely.
The Maternal andChildcare Practices during Postpartum Stage The postpartum stageincludes the proper taking care of both the mother and the child. After childbirth the mother must regain her strength, she must eat healthy food and avoidfoods that can cause illness to her and to the baby (Bruno 1973).Frame 3 shows the practices of Matigsalug mother’sduring the postpartum stage. It is generally shown that the mothers practiceddifferent beliefs.
Being part of their traditions they recognize the worth ofeach practice done by their ancestors. These practiced were handed down fromgeneration to generation. As observed, they are dependent on the food thatgives back their strength. They also practiced different kind of conception interms of postpartum stage. The Frame also shows that in postpartum period,Matigsalug women always used their practices on what food to eat and what toavoid. This practice helps them to regain their strength from delivery. There arecertain medicinal plants that were found in the forest.
They used this as acommon herb needed by their body. The purpose why they follow this practice isbecause they believe that it is very useful. It provides them the proper healthfar from illness. The herbs can fight infection. Frame 3Maternal practices during Postpartum Participants 1,2,3,4,5 and 6)”Ka eg keenen eyew eg libed ka keseg te iney, iyan seini se “kasile, binggala, sahing, wey apusew, lutya wey duma pad ne menge peg keen neg pakabehey te keseg. (The food that bring back her strength like camote, cassava, “sab’a” or native banana, “apusew” or wild gabi and other foods that help the mother gain her strength.) “Ke eg anak e ka iney keilangan ne kene eg amutan te asin wey kene pad eg pakeenen te “budlisan” wey ” pirit” su eg behang ka bate” (Do not eat soft rice with salt and also “budlisan” and “pirit” because it may cause illness to the mother) “wey kene pad eg pakeenen te makehal ne menge peg keen, wey kene eg peinumen te maagsil ne weyig wey pipsi keilangan ne kene pad eg keen te bawal ne peg keen neg paka bug hat te iney” (Do not drink soft-drinks and cold water because it may cause infections) “Wey due eg inumen te iney eyew eglibed ka keseg, eg init te dalid te abaka ” (There’s a drink that the mother strength will regain, boiled the root of abaca,) According toMorales, (2011) there are herbs that need to intake for healing fatigue afterchildbirth.
Some of the herbs used as tea are “Lawig”, “Iscobiya” or known as “sambong”.Additionally, mothers use roots from grasses like Tuway-tuway” or “Dalomokot” which aid them to bring back theirstrength. According to them there are severaltraditional plants that could be given to the motherto gain her strength, like camote, cassava, “sab’a” or native banana, “apusew” orwild gabi.
She can also eat vegetable, chicken and eggs (Bruno 1973). A motherwho just delivered must be aware of the food that she eats to avoid illness tothe baby. The health of the baby depends on the mother on how she is carefulwith her health. Another significant food which are prohibited for mothers are the bloody fish such as”budlisan” and “Pirit”. And also the mother is not allowed to eat soft ricewith salt, cold water, soft drinks and other unhealthy foods. As supported byMorales (2011) a newly mother most not drink cold water within one week afterbirth because they believed that a woman who drinks cold water might lose herweight.
In particular the Matigsalug women have herbs that help fight physical illness like “roots of abaca”. Theyboiled its roots and drink after every meal. According to their traditions,this herb contains a lot of traditional power or miracle.
The Maternal and Childcare Practices duringPostpartum Stage of the child.The maternal and childcare practices determined the practices and actionsobserved in the community in taking good care of the child.These practices believed that these can help them to give extra knowledge to give their child agood health. Frame 4 contains the answer of the participant regarding theirbeliefs after child birth. Frame 4Maternal Practices after Child Birth. (Participant 1,2,3,4,5 and 6) “Wey tukuwan te manuk eg tuuhen wey ig sewug te keenen te bate eyew kene eg buturan” (Get a “batikulon” or gizzard of the chicken, then grilled and mix it to the food of the baby) “Te peg dihus te bate eg kuwa te dalid te sahing ne sab-a wey ig sewug te weyig ne ig dihus te bate” (To bath the baby, get some roots of sab’a (banana) and root of abaca and mix to the water) Based on the study of Morales (2011) after 3 months of birth, the mothergives the baby solid food to gain weight and also gain nutrient from the food thatthey eat. The Matigsalug women believe that there are several foods that thebaby could become healthy, such as sweet potato,banana, cassava and powdered corn. On the other hand, the Matigsalugwomen practicedthe grilling of the “batikulon” or gizzard of the native chickenand mixed this on the first food of the baby.
They believed that when they performed these practices the baby will nevereasily have stomach pain even if they eat different kinds of food. Moreover, they have herbs that help the baby stay strong and far fromsickness. During the first bath of the baby they mix herbs in the water likethe roots of banana “sab’a”. The sab’a helps the baby stay strongin times of sickness. The root of abaca gives strength to go against diseases.
When a mother takesher bath she should only use warm water with pomelo leaves without wetting herhead. After birth a mother should not be bedridden to normalize the flow of theblood and to prevent the risk of fatigue. Theseobjectives indicate that the Matigsalug women practice the beliefs onpostpartum stage. The Matigsalug women shared these practices to their new generation as a set of guide especially duringpregnancy, child birth and postpartum stage. The Beliefs of MatigsalugMothers Frame 5 contains the answer of theparticipant regarding their beliefs related to maternal andchildcare practices. Thestatements were the beliefs of the Matigsalug women that are part of theirpractices and the base on their experiences. In general they believed crossingon the rope is prohibited during pregnancy time, and they should not sleepalone. The Matigsalug women always apply their beliefs following previous teaching of their elders.
Tradition knowledge was relevantto their system in the continuous preservation of what is being done. Today,the Matigsalug mothers always put into consideration their beliefs as thestrong foundation that will make their life more meaningful and useful. Frame 5 Beliefs duringpregnancy (Participant 1,2,3,4,5 and 6 ) “Ke due pisi te dalan kene eg langkaran keilangan neg gen genen ka pisi” (If there’s a rope in the road do not cross.) “ke eg langkad te pisi ka eg ka beres keilangan ne eg ileban ka pisi te eg kaberes eyew kene eg lumawihen” (Because if you cross the rope, it may cause worm inside the womb of the mother) “Ke eg ka beres ka keilangan ne kene layun eg lipereng sug saliyuwan ka bate te mareet ne tumenud te seled te getek te iney” (If you’re pregnant do not sleep alone because the evil spirit will disturb the baby inside the womb) “ke due ikug te kasili ig te tahu eyew eggamiten ne ig haplas te getek te iney ke eg panggeram eyew mahaan eg lesut ka bate” (Using tail of eel and rub it to the abdomen of pregnant mother) Frame 5 shows the responses of the Matigsalug parents on theirbeliefs. The Matigsalug women believedthat a pregnantwoman should not sleep alone because they believethat the evil will disturb the baby. In relation to the study of Morales (2011)that the expectant mother should not sleep in frontal position to avoidthe evil creators determined if the woman is pregnant. As she added that theMatigsalug women believes on evil creatures like “wak-wak” who sucks the bloodof the baby inside the mother’s womb and other bad spirits who were believed toharm the mother and baby. The Matigsalug mothers are alsonot allowed to walk alone in the evening without a male companion.
This wasbelieved that supernatural beings are involved in the whole process of pregnancyand childbirth (Ethnography of the major Ethno Linguistic Groups in Cordillera,2003). Some responses of the participants are quite unheard. For instance, apregnant woman should not step over a rope because itwill cause appearance of worm inside the mother’s womb. This statement wassupported by our key informant, TerisitaAlub said that she knows if the mother is carrying a worm inside the womb,because when she touches the abdomen of the pregnant woman it complains paininside the womb. Before the delivery occurs they use the tailof the eel as a belt or place this on the woman’s stomachrub down to the genital area. This process helps the woman to feel painless ingiving birth. This was said by key informant Terisita Alub.
“te warepad neg anak egbakes wey ig daktet tegetek te iney ka ekug te kasili” The rubbing of the woman’s abdomenwith the tail of eel(kasili) will cause easy delivery. Beliefs after Child birthFrame 6 contains the answer of the participant regarding their beliefsrelated to maternal and childcare practices after child birth. Frame 6Beliefs after Childbirth (Participant 1,2,3,4,5 and 5) “Eg gamit te “saliyey” eyew eg mahulub wey eg matale ka bate” (Using “saliyey” the baby is become talkative) ” ke eg engkeran ka bate te baley keilangan ne eg tahuan te asin ka keulunanan te bate ka uwaan te bate eyew kene eg daniyan te mareet ne tumenud” (If the baby is alone in the house put salt under the swing and bolo on the upper part of the swing to prevent bad spirit) “Wey eg liliyan te rinda te kude ig paragket te bebe te bate eyew malehed neg keen” (Get a renda of the horse and rub to the lips of the baby) for the baby they use ‘saliyoy”or small bell andtail of “kasili” or eel is used a rub of pregnant mother, “renda” of horse is also used to rub in the lips of baby. Accordingly, some of thesesupernatural beings are evil that would cause destruction to the newly bornbaby. When the mother leaves the baby alone at home, she puts salt under theswing (duyan) and also a bolo near the pillow. These objects, salt and bolo arebelieved to be protective to the child.
Another belief concerning the avoidance of evil spiritis the putting of a cup of water and ashes beside the door of the house. Thiswas done by them when mothers have urgent reasons inleaving the baby alone in the home. In few instances, they put a sign of thecross in the baby’s forehead using charcoal. In doing this, it is believed thatthe evil spirit cannot go near the baby. Added to the beliefs isthe use of “saliyoy” (small bell) in order for the baby to become talkativewhen he/shegrows.
The mother would let the bell sound so that the babies would have thegift. The rubbing of the baby’s lips with the “renda” of the horse will capacitate thebaby to eat all kinds of food. The practices mentioned earlier comprise the beliefs of the Matigsalugcommunity in relation to maternal and childcare practiceswith the assistance of the mangunguyamo.The women share their beliefs and also the practicesto their younger generation.
In doingthis in their own simple way, their traditional practices and beliefs onmaternal and childcare are established and remain useful and functional intheir community.