CHAPTER IINTRODUCTIONThis chapter outlines the study background andstates its problem. It also presents the research objective, the significanceof the study, scope and limitation, and definition of key terms.1.1.Research BackgroundReading skill is one of themost essential English basic skills. It is a process of constructing meaningfrom written texts (Hermida, 2009; S.A.
Gani et al., 2016). The readers makemeaning that requires word recognition, comprehension, and fluency. Reading is also called as an active processwhich should be achieved at the early learning ages (Ali, & Saiden, 2014).It is a compound skill that needs the coordination of relevant sources ofinformation. Therefore, it is necessary tolearn English through reading for students because it significantly givesinputs of knowledge.
Some students still have low competence in reading skill andlanguage components of English. S.A. Gani et al. (2016) find some difficultiesin reading for students. These dif?culties included ?nding the main idea in thetext, interpretation of the text, speci?c information, and understanding thenew English vocabulary or content terms used in the text.
The problem is notabout the understanding of the word meaning, but the main difficulty is theconnection between words, sentences, and the concept which will build thecomprehension of the text (Amir Rezaei, et al., 2012).Another problem could be found when teaching and learning readingprocess in classroom. The students do not enjoy in reading activities becauseof the monotonous technique which will affect the classroom atmosphere. Thisproblem is probably caused by the uninteresting technique used by teacher in teachingreading. The tedious teaching technique may cause the students less motivatedin learning reading process since students usually work in same way and teacherbecomes the primary focus.The interaction between the students and their friends should beplanned to make students enjoy the learning of reading. Wei and Tang (2012)state one of the factors that give a better impact for the students’achievement in learning is their relationship with friends.
Therefore, if theteacher can create atmosphere where student can build cooperation with theirfriends, it will give better result for the achievement of the learning. Forexample, students do the assignment with their partner or group and discusstogether cooperatively.Cooperativelearning is a learning method where students work in group in order to gain theshared goals. It has a huge impact for the students inlearning process due to its benefits (?engül and Katranci, 2014).In this cooperative learning method, students work together to finish a taskthat gives them the opportunity to discuss and share the ideas each other. Changingrole of students makes them feel in control and enjoy the activity since theteacher becomes a facilitator (Susan Esnawy, 2016). There are some techniques used in cooperative learning method whichone of them is Jigsaw technique.Jigsawis one of techniques in cooperative learning that makes students work activelyin groups through serial activities which also give impact for students’learning process.
Aç?kgöz (2006) stated that jigsaw technique is based on groupdynamics in which there are several sessions of activity for students in group.It is also based on social interactions caused by the activities that requiresstudents to work and discuss each other (as cited in Sahin, 2010). Thistechnique is one of the genuine cooperative learning techniques. It affectsstudents in fostering learner responsibility, positive interdependence andteamwork skills (Aronson, 1978; F.H.
Adams, 2013).Jigsawtechnique has procedures which are structured (Aronson, 1978). Teacher givesstudents the material and the aspects. Students are divided into home group tospecialize in one aspect in the material given.
Then, they are divided into newgroups called expert group to assign the same aspect of theirs. After masteringthe material in expert group, they return to the home group and teach eachaspects to their group members. As the result, all members of home group willget the lessons from each expert group discussion so that they will have advantageeach other (N.
H. Azmin, 2016).Differentstrategies of jigsaw technique had been developed by the experts (Sahin, 2010).One of them is jigsaw II developed by Slavin (1987). The difference betweenJigsaw II and the original jigsaw is one of the jigsaw stage activities. Inaddition, other strategies of jigsaw which developed are: Jigsaw III by Stahl (1994);Jigsaw IV by Holliday (2000); reverse jigsaw by Hedeen (2003); and subjectjigsaw developed by Doymus (2007).There are some previous researches discussed the importance ofjigsaw technique in learning process, for instance, in English reading skills. Oneof the researches was conducted by Mauludi (2011).
The researcher used experimentalresearch to measure the effectiveness of using jigsaw to improve students’reading narrative text ability. The eleventh grade students of MAN Kendal weretaken as the population. In analyzing the data, aquantitative measurement was used to find the result. The analysis of the datashowed that there was a significant difference of the students’ achievementbetween experimental class and control class. The result of his finding shownthat it was suggested that Jigsaw technique can be used by the teachers toimprove students’ ability in reading narrative text.Another researcher, Inayati (2011) used experimental study at SMPIslam Parung by using pre-test and post-test. The eighth grade students wereselected as the population. The result was that teaching reading using jigsawtechnique was effective to improve students’ reading comprehension.
Based on those previous studies, the jigsawtechnique is believed to help students to fulfill their lack in reading skillthrough cooperative learning method. However, those researches solely discussedthe used of original jigsaw technique by Aronson (1978). Therefore, the writeris interested to conduct a research about the use of jigsaw II techniqueparticularly in learning reading skill for students.1.2.Research Problem Basedon the description of the background study above, the research question can beframed as follows: Does jigsaw technique II significantly improve Students’Reading Skill?1.3. ResearchObjectiveDiscoveringthe pertinent answer to the research question is the most important objectiveof this research study.
So, this research is aimed to know whether the use ofjigsaw II technique significantly improves student’s reading skill or not.1.4.Scope and LimitationInthis study, the writer investigates the implementation of Jigsaw II techniquein improving students’ reading skills. To make it more focus, the study limitsthe problem only on the improvement of student’s reading skills which thematerial given is functional text in 1th semester ESP Readingsubject at English Department in University of Muhammadiyah Malang.1.
5. ResearchSignificanceThewriter expects this research will give good contribution for the lecturer, thestudents, and further researchers, and English language teaching. For the lecturer,the study is expected to give support of evidence that jigsaw II technique iseffective to be applied in class to improve students’ reading skills. Thestudents are also hoped to be motivated in mastering reading and given a morepositive class atmosphere. Furthermore, this study is intended to provide otherresearchers with some reliable instruments, action procedures, and experimentalfindings for employing them in future research. 1.
6.Definition of Key TermsThefollowing terms are defined operationally to avoid any misunderstanding andmisconceptions within research. 1. Jigsaw II TechniqueJigsawII is the cooperative learning technique developed by Slavin (1987). In thistechnique, students are divided into small groups doing the tasks given throughthe structured stages to achieve the goal in the learning process.
Jigsaw IIhas a slight difference with Jigsaw I by Aronson (1978) that it has anadditional stage in the process where students in home should read before go tothe expert groups and get a short testafter expert group (Kam-wing, 2004).2. Reading SkillReading skill is one of learning skills thatinvolves perception and thought. It needs two interactive processes betweenword recognition from text and readers’ comprehension. Readers enable to get amessage from the constructed meaning through the written words or symbolsinterpretation (Brown, 2000).