CHAPTER IIREVIEW OFRELATED LITERATUREIn this chapter the writerwould like to correlate some essential points with the present study. Thisstudy includes some relevant theoretical reviews from related literature. Indetail, this chapter explains about the definition and purpose of reading,reading skills, cooperative learning, Jigsaw technique, the implementation of Jigsawtechnique, Jigsaw II technique, and the other types of Jigsaw technique.2.1.
ReadingReadingis the making meaning from written text which needs the coordination betweenthe word recognition and comprehension. Linse (2005) states that reading is a process of making sense and constructingmeaning from printed words. The process of involving the activation ofrelevant knowledge and related language skills to accomplish an informationfrom the text. Chastain (1988) said that reading requires that the readerfocuses on the materials and integrates acquired knowledge and skills tocomprehend what is written (as cited in Motallebzadeh, 2011).Reading is one of learning skills that includesperception and thought. It needs two interactive processes between wordrecognition from text and readers’ comprehension.
Grabeand Stoller (2011) say that reading is ability of drawing meaning from printedpage and interpreting the information appropriately. 2.1.1 Purpose of ReadingReadingis essential to help human’s insight in life progress. Slavin, (2006) said thatreading learning in the early ages is one of the most important of alldevelopmental tasks, both because other subjects depend on reading and becausein our society school success is so often equated with reading success. Readingis useful for students’ language development (Harmer, 2007).
Readingis useful for language acquisition. The more students read, the better they understand.It positively impacts the vocabulary knowledge, on students’ spelling andwriting.Readingtexts also afford great instance for English writing. At different timesteacher can encourage students to focus on vocabulary, grammar or punctuation. Teachercan use reading material to demonstrate the way teacher constructs sentences,paragraphs and whole texts. Students then have good models to their ownwriting.Lastly,good reading texts can introduce interesting topics, stimulate discussion,excite imaginative responses and provide the springboard for well-rounded, and fascinatinglessons.
2.2 Reading skillReadingis very important in order to enhance the human knowledge. The skills ofreading have to be developed so the student can read things from many types oftext. In taking sense of the text, cognitive process in the reading skill isused.The skill of reading is used by the reader to anticipate text information, selecting keyinformation, organize and mentally summarize information, monitorcomprehension, repair comprehension breakdowns, and match comprehension output to the reader goals (Grabe, 2009). Every reader has their own way of readingwhich is appropriate with them. The teacher should give some skills to thestudents to make them comprehend text easily.
Using the skills, the studentsmay increase the pleasure and effectiveness of reading activity.Thereare two major skills of reading (Brown, 2004: 187-188). They are micro-skillsand macro-skills. The readers, in micro-skills, must have skills when they dealwith graphemes and orthographic patterns and linguistic signals. While in themacro-skills, the readers need to make use of their discourse knowledge, communicativefunctions of written texts, inference skill, scanning and skimming techniques.The macro skills will help the readers to comprehend a text well.Thereare skills of reading from other experts. One of the experts is Mikulecky(2008) who proposes reading skills.
The several skills can be seen in the tablebelow. Table2.1. Reading Skills and the Purposes. No Skills Purpose 1. Automatic decoding Students can recognize a word at a glance.
2. Previewing and predicting Students are able to guess the meaning of the text by looking at the text a quick once over. 3. Identifying purposes Students are able to predict what the form and context of the text will be.
4. Specifying Purposes Students are able to know why the text is being read. 5. Scanning Students are able to find out the specific information in a text by looking at the text very rapidly. 6. Recognizing topics Students are able to find out what the text tells about after reading and comprehending the text.
7. Locating the topic sentences Students are able to find out a topic sentence in a text. 8. Making inference by use evidence Students are able to infer main ideas of the text and can show the evidence that supports their inference.
9. Guessing the meaning of unknown words from the context Students are able to guess the meaning of unknown word from the context. 10.
Skimming Students are able to process a text rapidly at many levels in order to get an overall picture of it. 11. Paraphrasing Students are able to paraphrase the text to help them understand the text by using their own words. 12. Summarizing Students are able to shorten the text by retaining and re-stating the main idea by leaving out details. 13.
Drawing conclusion Students are able to put together the information from several parts of the text and induce new or additional ideas. 14. Reading critically Students are able to judge the accuracy of the text with respect to what the reader already knows and distinguish facts or opinions. 15. Reading faster Students are able to read fast enough to allow the brain to process the input. 2.
3 Cooperative LearningCooperativelearning is a teaching and learning method that emphasizes the attitude orbehavior in working or helping the organized cooperation structure within agroup, which consists of two or more people. According to Lie (2010), it is amodel of learning in which students in cooperative learning situations areencouraged and expected to do the same thing together, and they must coordinatetheir efforts to complete the task. It is built upon the philosophy of homo homini socius which defines thathuman beings are social creatures. It is essentially required for human life.
Inimplementation of cooperative learning, the role of teacher is different fromthe traditional method where teachers are the main focus. This method useslearner-centered that students work actively in class. Richard and Rogers(2001) say that teachers have important role in classroom that is being thefacilitator of learning. They give students tasks and assist them also take controlthe teaching learning process. 2.4 Jigsaw techniqueThetechniques of cooperative learning method in teaching and learning process arevarious; Jigsaw is one of those techniques. It is a technique of learningprocess where students are divided into small group.
Then they are given somematerial as an expert to be shared in the new combining group. They explain tothe combine group until getting all of the materials. Sugianti (2016) said thatthe Jigsaw technique is like the pieces of puzzle which is collected to make acomplete picture.InJigsaw technique based on Rusman (2008), students have opportunities to expresstheir opinions, and process the information also improve their communicationskills. Each member of the groups has responsibility to get a successful teamwork and the complete material learning. This should be shared to their owngroup. There are several steps in the Jigsaw techniqueimplementation in classroom (Aronson,2000).
The first is that the students separate from the first groups and form new groups with the otherstudents who have same responsible in preparing the same subjects which calledan expert group. In this group, each student has responsibility to report aboutwhat they have discussed in the expert group, so in the expert group they learnnot only about understanding their own subject but also learn how to teach thesubject to their friend. In the last activity the students ask to present someactivities in order to unify students’ learning. 2.
4.1 The Implementation of Jigsaw TechniqueInteaching reading which uses Jigsaw technique, there are several activities thatis designed by Elliot Aronson in the early 1978. They are the division of groupand assignment or task, expert group working, and Jigsaw group working.a.
Grouping anddivision of the taskTheclass is divided into groups depend on the amount of the text. This group iscalled as the home group. Students are distributed the text which consists ofdifferent information but it still related to each other and it constructs thetopic. b. Work in theexpert groupAfterreading their own text, students are asked to make a new group based on themwho have the same text. It is called as expert teams. Teacher ask the expertteam to discuss the text and each students study together and could makeopinion to share. They also make conclusion of its discussion.
c. Working in the JigsawgroupStudentswho work in expert teams are asked to come back to their home team. It alsocalled as the Jigsaw group. Each member of the Jigsaw group are needed toexplain what they have learnt in expert team to each other. They have to takethe responsibility to teach their friends.Fromthose steps above, the writer would say that those three steps are essential.
Theymust be considered to be implementedsequentially. When one of the steps is not applied then it will be odd and thelearning process is not effective. 2.5 Jigsaw II TechniqueTheimplementation of Jigsaw II which was developed by Robert Slavin in 1986. Inthis technique, students read the material to get the large view of theinformation before they answer the given expert sheet and also get a testbefore returning to the home group.
There are five steps of jigsaw IIimplementation (Kam-wing, 2004). This technique divides the students into small(4 – 6 students) heterogeneous (mixed in ability and gender) that consists of severalsteps: Step 1: Reading. Each students is given the similar set of materials related to the topic and an expert sheet. For example, for groups of four, the expert sheet consists of four questions, each of which focuses on one of the four topics of the reading materials.
Every member of the group needs to answer one of the questions from reading the relevant piece of the materials. The reading of the materials can be made as homework before the class to save the lesson time alternatively, particularly when the materials are long (Slavin, 1995). Step 2: Expert Group Discussion. For members who are exercising the same question in the expert sheet, they make an expert group. In the process of discussion, each member of expert group can make notes in order to stimulate their explanation of the discussion in home group. In this stage, the expert groups may get a proficiency test before returning to their home groups related to the topic they have studied in order to know the depth of their knowledge. Step 3: Home Group Reporting. After discussing in the expert group, students return to the home group to teach the lesson that they got.
The teacher may make a short whole class discussion after students shared the lesson each other for clarifying doubts, and for rousing additional discussion of the topic. Step 4: Testing. All students take a short test after mastering the materials. The individual test scores are then counted as development scores by comparing with the previous scores that stand for students’ past performance. Step 5: Group Recognition.
Every member of the group will be given a group reward if they reach the high score from the averages. They get similar reward without regard to their individual performance in the test. The aim is to reinforce their cooperation.Thistable 2.2. compares the stages of the original Jigsaw technique and Jigsaw IItechnique based on Holliday (2000), Kam-wing (2004), and Sahin (2010). Table 2.2 The comparison stages of the Jigsaw I and Jigsaw II technique Stages Jigsaw Jigsaw II 1 Formation of home groups Formation of home groups 2 Reading relevant material 3 Giving the groups of experts the units of work Giving the each member of group the expert sheet 4 Expert groups research their expertise subjects before they return to their home groups Expert groups research their expertise subjects and get a short test before they return to their home groups 5 Students in expert groups return to their home groups to share what they have learnt with their friends.
Students in expert groups return to their home groups to share what they have learnt with their friends. 6 Individual evaluation and grading. Individual evaluation and grading. 2.
6 Other Types of Jigsaw TechniquesSince the original Jigsaw strategy by Elliot Aronsonwas developed, other educators have improved it with their own variations suchas Jigsaw II by Slavin (1987); Jigsaw III by Stahl (1994); JigsawIV by Holliday (2000); Reverse Jigsaw by Hedeen (2003); and Subject Jigsaw byDoymus (2007). Thedifference between the developed Jigsaw and the original Jigsaw is the stageactivities. JigsawIII technique is developed by Robert J. Stahl in 1994. Basically, it has thesame stages with two previous techniques which are original Jigsaw and JigsawII. The only different thing is the teacher’s review stage Holliday (2000).
After students return to the home group and teach the lessons from their expertgroup, teacher gives conclusion or review about the process of whole group.JigsawIV technique is the improvement of Jigsaw III developed by Holliday (2000). Theintroduction given first and some quizzes are given to the expert groups. Thereare also additional features such as review process and re-teaching of anymaterial that wasn’t sufficiently discussed in the group work (Holliday, 2000).
TheJigsaw techniques was developed further by other experts. Reverse Jigsaw wasexpanded by Timothy Hedeen in 2003 which is meant to facilitate understandingof the range of students’ interpretations, such as perceptions and judgments(Hedeen, 2003). Then, in 2007, Kemal Doymus developed the subject Jigsawtechnique (Sahin, 2010).