Which pair of leaders used political purges, including the killing of opposition groups, as a means of maintaining control of the government? (1) Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen) and Emperor Hirohito (2) Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong(3) Simón Bolívar and Bernardo O’Higgins (4) F. W. de Klerk and Indira Gandhi
(2) Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong
Which factor most helped Communist Party forces gain control of China after World War II? (1) The United States sent weapons to the Communists. (2) The Japanese gave economic aid to the Nationalists.(3) The Communists gained the support of China’s peasant class.(4) The Chinese Nationalists set up their own government in Taiwan.
(3) The Communists gained the support of China’s peasant class.
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One reason the Chinese Communists were able to gain control of China was primarily due to the support of the (1) peasants (2) landed elite(3) foreigners (4) warlords
Which factor most helped Communist Party forces gain control of China after World War II? (1) The United States sent weapons to the Communists.
(2) The Japanese gave economic aid to the Nationalists.(3) The Communists gained the support of China’s peasant class.(4) The Chinese Nationalists set up their own government in Taiwan.
(3) The Communists gained the support of China’s peasant class.
•Scholars take civil service examinations for government positions.•Students form Red Guard units to challenge counterrevolutionaries.•Students demonstrate for democratic reforms in the capital and are killed by government troops. These statements describe the changing role of students in which nation? (1) Japan(2) China(3) Russia(4) India
One similarity between the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution and the Cultural Revolution in China was that both (1) limited the power of absolute leaders (2) illustrated the power of public opinion in forming national policy(3) established social stability and economic growth(4) used violent methods to eliminate their opponents
(4) used violent methods to eliminate their opponents
One similarity between Stalin’s five-year plans and Mao Zedong’s Great Leap Forward was that both programs attempted to(1) increase industrial production (2) privatize the ownership of land(3) correct environmental pollution (4) strengthen international trade
(1) increase industrial production
A factor that contributed to the success of both Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam and Mao Zedong in China was their ability to combine(1) imperialism and traditionalism (2) nationalism and communism(3) ethnocentrism and democracy (4) isolationism and capitalism
(2) nationalism and communism
One way in which Maximilien Robespierre, Joseph Stalin, Mao Zedong, and Saddam Hussein are similar is that these leaders all(1) purged their nations of political opponents (2) followed the teachings of Karl Marx(3) supported the ideals of the European Enlightenment (4) obtained their goals through the use of passive resistance .
(1) purged their nations of political opponents
In the People’s Republic of China, which factor best reflects Marxism?1.communal work teams on farms2.ownership of small farms by individuals3.
small family-owned businesses in villages4.foreign influence on the economy
1.communal work teams on farms
The Great Leap Forward in China and the five-year plans in the Soviet Union were attempts to increase1.private capital investment2.
religious tolerance3.individual ownership of land4.industrial productivity
In China and the former Soviet Union, the communist governments discouraged organized religion because religions1.compete for the loyalties of the people2.support the principles of laissez-faire3.favor anarchy over organized government4.
stress economic rather than political values
1.compete for the loyalties of the people
A major goal of the Cultural Revolution in China during the 1960’s was to1.restore China to the glory of the Han Dynasty2.reemphasize Confucian traditional values3.weaken communist ideas4.eliminate opposition to Mao Zedong
eliminate opposition to Mao Zedong
After World War II, the Chinese Communists were successful in their revolution mainly because the1.United States refused to support the Nationalists2.communists had the support of the peasants3.communists had more technologically advanced weapons4.nationalist had been defeated by Japan
2.communists had the support of the peasants
An immediate result of the Cultural Revolution in China was that it1.
helped to establish democracy in urban centers in China2.led to economic cooperation with Japan and South Korea3.disrupted China’s economic and educational systems4.strengthened political ties with the United States
3.disrupted China’s economic and educational systems
The main reason the Chinese Communists gained control of mainland China in 1949 was that1.
they were supported by many warlords and upper class Chinese2.the United States had supported the Chinese Communist Party during World War II3.the dynamic leadership of Mao Zedong had the support of the peasant class4.they had superior financial resources and were supported by Japan
3.the dynamic leadership of Mao Zedong had the support of the peasant class
In China, the Great Leap Forward was an attempt to1.promote democratic reform2.
end the private ownership of land3.strengthen economic ties with Europe4.increase agricultural and industrial production
4.increase agricultural and industrial production
Deng Xioaping’s economic reforms in China differ from the previous economic policies of Mao Zedong in that Deng’s reforms1.discourage private ownership of businesses2.promote further collectivization3.include elements of capitalism4.
decrease trade with the United States
3.include elements of capitalism
The Confucian view of government and the Chinese Communist view of government were similar in that both stressed1.loyalty to the government2.the need for filial piety3.a civil service system4.
equality of men and women
1.loyalty to the government
A major reason for the success of the Communist revolution in China was that the Communists1.stressed Buddhism in their military training2.
included important businessmen in their ranks3.promised land and power to the peasant class4.fought successfully against the United States during World War II
3.promised land and power to the peasant class
In China, the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution promoted by Mao Zedong were similar in that both plans1.ended dynastic rule2.disrupted industrial development3.encouraged capitalism4.guaranteed human rights
disrupted industrial development
During the 1980’s, the Chinese government adopted policies designed to1.increase industrial productivity2.reestablish Confucian traditions and values3.
gain colonies throughout East Asia4.maintain its isolation from world events
1.increase industrial productivity
Which statement about the economy of China in the 1980’s is most accurate?1China surpassed the Soviet Union in steel production2.China’s economy slowed down because of a lack of natural resources3.China increased its industrial capacity and foreign trade4.China’s economy suffered from overproduction of consumer goods
3.China increased its industrial capacity and foreign trade
Sun Yat-sen’s “Three Principles of the People” (1911) and the demonstrations in Tiananmen Square (1989) were similar in that they both demanded that the Chinese government1.achieve global interdependence2.
restore dynastic rule3.introduce democratic reforms4.end foreign influences in China
3.introduce democratic reforms
The goal of Mao Zedong’s policy known as the Great Leap Forward was to1.develop foreign export industries in China’s coastal urban centers2.eliminate state-owned industries in rural China3.
modernize China’s economic system by dividing China into communes4.introduce capitalism to the Chinese economy
3.modernize China’s economic system by dividing China into communes
Which statement about reforms in China during the 1980’s and 1990’s is most accurate?1.
Political reforms resulted in the overthrow of communism.2.Economic reforms were more successful than political reforms.
3.Political reforms increased individual rights.4.
Economic reforms forced China to return to a policy of isolationism.
2.Economic reforms were more successful than political reforms.
“A wind has been blowing from the West; now it will begin to blow from the East.” — Mao Zedong, 1949 Which idea was Mao Zedong expressing in this quotation?1.
The monsoons will soon shift and bring destruction to the mainland of Asia.2.Chinese culture will no longer influence the people of Asia.
3.European power will decline as a new center of power emerges in Asia.4.The Asian people have much to learn from the Western Europeans.
3.European power will decline as a new center of power emerges in Asia.
The unequal treaties were the result of a war fought againsta. Japanb.
Which of the following required a higher degree of knowledge and education?a. the tribute systemb. the civil servicec. the foreign serviced.
b. the civil service
The Chinese considered foreigners to be barbarians. This attitude was an example ofa.
ethnocentrismb. cultural diffusionc. empathyd. interdependence
During the 19th century, Western nations were able to be gain control over parts of China mainly because a. the Chinese had a strong tradition of nonviolence.b.China lacked the military technology needed to stop these ventures c.
China was promised aid for its industriesd. the Chinese lacked a strong cultural identity
b.China lacked the military technology needed to stop these ventures
During the Communist Revolution in China, many farmers supported the Communist because they promiseda. land reformb. a peace treaty with Japanc.
a federal republicd. aid from the industrial nations
a. land reform
After gaining control of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party), Chiang Kai-shek’s most important goal in the 1920’s wasa.land reform to assist the pesantsb.destruction of the Communistsc. the invasion of Koread.
assisting Ho Chi Minh in overthrowing French
b.destruction of the Communists
Hong Kong a.is a British Crown Colonyb. returned to the Chinese in 1997c. has an economy based on agricultured. was won by the Japanese in Sino-Japanese War
returned to the Chinese in 1997
The communist victory in the Chinese Civil War was a result of all following excepta. the inability of of the Nationalists to stabilize the economy.b. the lack of the U.
S. aid to the Communistsc. peasant dissatisfaction with nationalist regimed. the effective use of propaganda and guerrilla warfare by the communists.
b. the lack of the U.S.
aid to the Communists
A study of the history of China would reveal thata. there has always been strong central governmentb. until modern times a single dynastyc.
periods of strong central government alternated with periods of internal disturbance, foreign invasion and government corruption.d. foreigners ruled China for far longer periods than native Chinese
c. periods of strong central government alternated with periods of internal disturbance, foreign invasion and government corruption.
During the early 1800’s the relationship between China and the Western nations was strained becausea. the Western nations did not wish to purchase chinese goodsb. China insisted it be dealt with through the tribute system c. the Western nations wished to purchase opium and the Chinese refusedd. China wished to buy Western armaments and other manufactured goods and was rebuffed.
China insisted it be dealt with through the tribute system
A country with an unfavorable balance of tradea. exports goods of greater value than it importsb. imports goods of greater value than it exportsc. exports natural resources and imports manufactured goodsd. imports manufactured goods and exports textiles.
b. imports goods of greater value than it exports
The very existence of the Yuan Dynasty supports the fact that China’s least effective geographic barrier was thea.
Himalayan Mountainsb. Great Wallc. Gobi Desertd. Tien Shan Mountain
c. Gobi desert
Which form of government is most likely to suppress human rights?a. constitutional monarchb.
democratic republicc. parliamentary systemd. totalitarian regime
d. totalitarian regime
The ethnocentric atitude of the Chinese a.
resulted in a reluctance to adopt aspects of other culturesb.led to periods of internal strife during faminec. prevented the Chinese from expanding their territoryd. caused student rebellion in the 1980’s
b.led to periods of internal strife during famine
China’s earliest civilizations originated in the a. Tibetan Plateau b.
region of Xinjiangc. Huanghe RIver Valleyd. Canton delta region
c.Huanghe RIver Valley
The 19th century was China’s Age of Humiliation for all the following reasons excepta.
China was conquered by the Mongolsb. the unequal treatiesc. China’s defeat in the Opium Ward. the granting of spheres of influence to Western nations.
China was conquered by the Mongols
In the late 1880’s Confucian scholars resisted government reform and economic change becausea. The Empress Dowager wished to hand the reins of government to the peasantsb. they feared it would erode their own political influencec. The Russians threatened to withdraw financial aid if changes took placed. Japan had agreed to help them maintain as isolationist policy
b. they feared it would erode their own political influence
During the Manchu Dynasty in China the tribute or tributary system a.
required foreigners to bring gifts to the Chinese emperor and recognize China’s superiorityb. was used to build irrigation systems in the North China Plainc. allowed the Chinese to assimilate the culture of the Manchusd. granted extraterritorial rights to the European traders in Hong Kong
a. required foreigners to bring gifts to the Chinese emperor and recognize China’s superiority
Sun Yat-sen’s Three Principalof the People were designed to do all the following except.a. rid China of foreign influenceb.
establish a democratic governmentc. break up large estates and provide peasants with landd.bring all industry and mining under government monopoly
b. establish a democratic government
The Tang Dynasty was known as a Golden Age because of all the achievements in the following areas except.a.
poetryb. porcelainc. printingd. armaments