Collection1: Holt Elements of Literature Sixth Course

Topic: ArtFrida Kahlo
Sample donated:
Last updated: May 4, 2019
Anglo-Saxon
AD 449: Angles and Saxons are from Germany who invaded Great Britian

Gilgamesh
c 1300 BC: his epic was published

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Homer
700 BC: wrote both the Iliad and the Odyssey

Virgil
70 BC: Roman poet

Ovid
c 5 AD: Roman poet who wrote Metamorphoses

Vellum books
c 360 AD: They replaced scrolls throughout Europe

Buddha
c 650: Chinese sculpture from T’ang dynasty

T’ang period
600s: promotes everyday use of the Chinese language

Alexandria
640: where the famous library with the 300,000 papyrus scrolls were

Caedmon
c. 670: earliest English Christian poet who wrote hymns

Beowulf
ca. 700: an English epic

Venerable Bede
730: an English clergy who wrote the Ecclesiastical History of the English People

Manyashu
c. 759: Japanese anthology of about 4500 poems

Book of Kells
760: monks wrote these; an illuminated manuscript of Latin gospels

Poetic Edda
c.

850: Famous cycle of Norse mythological poems

The Thousand and One Nights
900: a series of Arabian tales

The Exeter Book
c. 975: a collection of English poetry

The Tale of Genji
c. 1000: novel written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu

Celt
blond warriors called Brythons (another term of Britons)

Animism
spirit

Alfred the Great
871-899: led Anglo-Saxons against Danes

Grendel
man-eating monster who lives at the bottom of a mountain lake

Herot
Golden guest hall built by Hrothgar; decorated with antlers of stags

Hrothgar
Danish king and friend of Beowulf’s father

Wiglaf
Geat warrior and part of Beowulf’s band; only one to assist him in his final fight

resolute
determined

lavish
extravagant

Viking
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia

archetype
perfect example

epic
a quest story on a grand scale

bard
A lyric poet

caesura
rhythmic pause in a verse

kenning
A device employed in Anglo-Saxon poetry in which the name of a thing is replaced by one of its functions or qualities, as in “ring-giver” for king and “whale-road” for ocean.

Austere
severe or stern in appearance; undecorated

squall
Brief, violent storm

groveling
humiliating someone in one’s authority

gallant
Brave and noble

scourge
inflict severe punishment

fawning
cringing and pleading

Achilles
powerful Greek warrior son of Peleus and Thetis

Patroclus
Greek warrior and companion of Achilles

Trojan
natives of Troy

Hector
commander of Trojan armies; son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba

Paris
another son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba

Priam
Trojan king; father of Prince Hector and Prince Paris

Apollo
god of poetry, music and prophecy; only son of Zeus and Leto; sides with the Trojans

Athena
goddess of wisdom

Zeus
father-god

Dardan Gates
gates of Troy; Dardania is a city built near the foot of Mt.

Ida

Deiphobus
one of Hector’s brothers

Iliad
war epic

Odyssey
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy

invocation
formal plea for aid

convention
characteristic

medias res
in the midst of things

Agamemnon
(Greek mythology) the king who lead the Greeks against Troy in the Trojan War

Hera
Goddess of marriage

elegy
a sorrowful poem or speech

mead-hall
Gathering place for warriors

wyrd
Fate

wergild
“money for a man”, the value of a person in money, depending on social status; in Germanic society, a fine paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the person he or she had injured or killed

sentinel
A guard

sinews
Tendons

hoary
very old; whitish or gray from age

pyre
A heap of combustibles for burning a corpse as a funeral rite.

scabbard
sheath for sword or dagger

runic
mysterious; magical

solace
Comfort

skulked
(v.) moved about in a secretive or sneaky way

scruples
Misgivings about something one feels is wrong

theme
Central idea of a work of literature

allusion
A reference to another work of literature, person, or event

illusion
(n.) a false idea; something that one seems to see or to be aware that really does not exist

William the Conqueror
1027-1087: Norman king in 1066 he defeated Harold, the Anglo-Saxon king, to become the first Norman king of England

scop
traveling composer and poet serving as paid entertainment usually

comitatus
code of loyalty

vexed
annoyed

hoard
collection of hidden coins, treasures, etc.

-able or -ible
is; can be

-al, -ial
having characteristic of

ed
past tense verb

en
made of

er or or
person connected with

am
love

plac
please

luc/lum/los
light

loc/loq/loqu
word, speech

auto
self

pas/pat/path
feeling, suffering, disease

pseudo
fake

nom/nym
name

dog/dox
opinion

phil
love

anthro/andro
human

terra
earth

allegory
a symbolic fictional narrative that conveys a meaning not explicitly set forth in the narrative.

symbolism
A device in literature where an object represents an idea.

direct characteristic
Directly says or thinks about character.

Other words in a direct characterization the reader is like.

indirect characteristic
Traits not actually stated but are determined by the reader from clues the author gives

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