Contamination which are water-washed diseases, water-borne diseases, water-based

                       Contamination of clean water by chemical, biological, and radiologic agents may affect the health of millions of people throughout the world. Water pollution is not a new term in our world today as it happens most of the time. The water quality is mostly affected by human activities and is decreasing because of the population growth, the rise of urbanization, climate change, industrial production, and other factors. The awareness of this crisis have increased in recent years, but it still remains a major crisis in countries across the globe and not resolved   ( S.A.U.M.Senanayak, Krishnal Thirumarpan & T.Thiruchelvam, 2016). They said that this threatening water pollution is a serious threat to the well-being of people as it cause health problems to those who depend on these polluted water for their lives. The demand is increasing as the population expands, the need for clean water is a growing issue in the world today. The major water pollutants are infectious agents, toxic organics, organic matter, inorganic matter, sediments and heat as stated in Nawoda D. and Savithri Ranasinghe E.M’s research study (2009) that have been mentioned in S.A.U.M.Senanayak  et al. research(2016). These pollutants will lead to the water pollution which will cause numerous water-related diseases that can be categorized into four major categories which are water-washed diseases, water-borne diseases, water-based diseases, and water-related insect vectors.           Water-washed diseases are due to the lack of clean water for washing as people are using the contaminated water to wash everything that they use in their daily life. These water-washed diseases such as skin and eye infections are one of the common categories that affected people who are having the water pollution crisis. S.A.U.M.Senanayak  et al. (2016) performed a study in Gampaha District, they found that there are several water-related diseases, including water-washed diseases which due to this crisis as the contaminated water in the study area has bacteria, viruses, and parasites. From the total of 100 households sample, almost all households were affected by the water-related disease. All of the respondents stated that at least one of their family members was suffered from water-related diseases. Majority of the household were affected by amoebiasis and skin rashes (93% and 81% respectively). According to the households’ medical records, it was revealed that very little of the household was affected by Typhoid, Schistosomiasis, Lead poisoning, Arsenicosis, Polio, Hepatitis A, Trachoma, Polyomavirus infection, Cancers and Reproductive problems which are included in the other categories of water-related diseases. Therefore, the findings could be assumed that these types of problems are limited in the study area as the pollution only affects the hygiene practices which implies the degree of pollution and its severity( S.A.U.M.Senanayak  et al., 2016).  S.A.U.M. Senanayak et al. (2016) cited that addressing the problem immediately is needed to tackle the problem before it becomes more harmful to the population by effectively monitoring, regulating, and reducing the use of any substances or elements that could cause this threatening crisis (Hettige et al., 2014).            Water-borne diseases are diseases that are transmitted by water. This diseases caused by drinking the contaminated water which contains infectious viruses or bacteria transmitting the diseases. It is one of the common categories that affected people who are having the water pollution crisis which usually called as life-threatening diseases. Water-borne diseases, including cholera, and other serious illnesses such as Guinea worm disease, typhoid, and dysentery have often come from human or animal waste. Allaa M. Aenab and  S. K. Singh stated in their research (2012) in Baghdad that water-borne diseases are spreading due to supplies of contaminated drinking water. In their research, they stated that in the first six months of 2010, there were over 360,000 diarrhea cases as a result of contaminated drinking water supplies and local communities lacking the hygiene awareness, particularly vulnerable groups such as children and women (World Health Organization Position Papers, 2010). The World Health Organization (WHO) also reported that from April 28 to June 4, 2010, there was a total of 73 laboratory-confirmed cholera cases in Iraq, which was 10 times more than WHO officials found during the same period last year. Allaa M. Aenab and  S. K. Singh reported that Leaking sewage pipes and septic tanks in Baghdad contaminate the drinking water network with wastewater. It is surprised to know that only 17% of wastewater is treated before discharged into the environment and 80% of Iraqis do not treat their water before drinking. So for this study, Allaa M. Aenab and  S. K. Singh take water supply samples and water supply network (houses, shops, and different places). Then, they made the analysis of parts, first bacteriology, second chlorine. After analyzing these samples in the lab, Allaa M. Aenab and  S. K. Singh conclude that around 100 infants die every day, many from waterborne diseases, with around 36,000 infants dying before they celebrate their first birthday and 1 child out of every 20 in Iraq dies before reaching their 5th birthday.Their research (2012) in Baghdad also assumed that around 1,300,000 Iraqi children’s lives will be saved if Iraq succeeds in attaining the Millennium Development Goals target of reducing the current 41 deaths for every 1000 live births to 21 deaths for every 1000 live births by 2035. This will be achieved by improving the drinking water quality as well as with the better hygiene practices adoption by the population.Unfortunately, the other two categories of water-related diseases which are water-based diseases and water-related insect vectors are not usually happened in the community when this water pollution crisis occur. For information, water-based diseases such as schistosomiasis, are spread by organisms that develop in water and then become human parasites. They are spread by contaminated water and by eating insufficiently cooked fish. Then, Water-related insect vectors, such as mosquitoes, breed in or near water and spread diseases, including dengue and malaria. This category is not directly related to water supply or quality. So, these water pollution effect which is water-related diseases may affect the health of millions of people others throughout the world as it also could threaten many lives.Allaa M. Aenab and  S. K. Singh said in their research(2012) that the simplest way to calculate the prediction of the future deaths from water-related diseases comes from assuming that the proportion of deaths from water-related diseases to total population experienced today will remain in the future. As the total population grows, total water-related deaths will also expand annually (Allaa M. Aenab and  S. K. Singh, 2012). 

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