CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Names| Country/Date/Era| Theory/Definition/Statement| 1-Aristotle| Greek/384 BC –322/Ancient philosophy| He was of the approach that administering society’s public decision and allocating its public resources. The approach recognizes the ambiguity of administrative discretion and the fact that administrators depend on substantive norms (values) to guide their interpretation of law and their allocation of resources. 2-John Locke| England /29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704/17th-century philosophy| John Locke strongly emphasized on the liberty of the administrators, his theory gives an account of why it is legitimate for public administrators to sometimes perform functions that are legislative or judicial in nature and encourages public administrators to interpret directives from those with greater political authority in light of respect for rights and the public will. 3-Thomas Hobbes| England /5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679/17th-century philosophy| He is of the idea that sovereignty may lie in one man or in an assembly of men but once established it has absolute power to make laws. | 4-Rousseau | Switzerland /28 June 1712 – 2 July /18th century philosophy| According to him the general will is always right, and it always tends toward the public utility.
Only the general will can direct the forces of state according to the purpose for which it was instituted, which is the common good. | 5-Montesquieu | France /18 January 168910 February 1755/18th century philosophy| He clearly distinguished the three fundamental powers in public administration: legislative, executive and judiciary. He concludes that the mere existence of these independent powers guarantees the liberty of citizens, which was his most important guiding principle. 6-Thomas Paine| England/February 9, 1737 – June 8, 1809 18th century philosophy| He advocates the representative government because representation makes it possible to extend government over a large area and serves “refine and enlarge the public views, by passing them through the medium of chosen body of citizen, whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country”. | 7- Samuel Adams| Massachusetts United States/ September 27 1722 – October 2, 1803/18th century philosophy| He was denounced as the “Chief of revolution” by the ministry.
He described public administration as the development, implementation and study of branches of government policy. | 8- Thomas Jefferson| Virginia, British America. (1743-1826) | The study of public administration needs to be related to the broad generalization of political theory concerned with such matters as justice, liberty, obedience, and the role of the state in human affairs. | 9- Harold Stein| Not found| Public administration is a field in which every man is his own codifier and categorizer and the categories adopted must be looked on as relatively evanescent. 10- D. Waldo| USA (1913-October 27, 2000). | The art and science of management as applied to the affairs of the state. In Waldo’s phrase, the use of the word ‘Public’ before ‘Administration’ restricts its coverage to the administrative activities of the government. Administration frames civilization by giving it a foundation or stage and by providing a base for growth. | 11- Frederick C. Mosher| 1968, USA| His views about public administration were “Perhaps it is best that it (public administration) not be defined.
It is more an area of interest than a discipline, more a focus than a separate science; it is necessarily cross-disciplinary. The overlapping and vague boundaries should be viewed as a resource, even though they are irritating to some with orderly minds”. | 12- Robert S. Parker| 1965,USA| He explained that “No science or art can be identified by this title, least of all any single skill or coherent intellectual discipline. The term has no relation to the world of systematic thought, it does not itself, offer any promising opportunity to widen or make more precise any single aspect of scientific knowledge”. 13- F. Good now| United Sates of America (1859-1939)| F. Good now was of the idea, There are, then, in all governmental systems two primary or ultimate functions of governments, the expression of the will of the state and the execution of that will. There are also in all states separate organs, each of which is mainly busied with the discharge of one of these functions. These functions are, respectively, Politics and Administration. Politics has to do with policies or expression of the state will. Administration has to do with the execution of these policies. 14- L. D. White| (1845-1921)USA| Public administration consists of all those operations having for their purpose, the fulfillment or enforcement of public policy. | 15- Felix A, Nigro| 1989/ USACo-Writer of Modern Public Administration published in 1989. They have the same theory| Public administration is cooperative group effort in a public setting, covers all three branches executive, legislative and judicial and their relationships. It has an important role in the formulation of public policy and is thus part of the political process.
It is more important than and also different in significant ways from private administration. | 16- Lloyd G. Nigro | Modern Public Administration published in 1989. | Public administration is cooperative group effort in a public setting, covers all three branches executive, legislative and judicial and their relationships. It has an important role in the formulation of public policy and is thus part of the political process. It is more important than and also different in significant ways from private administration. 17- Charles H. Levine| (1897-1991)USA. Book published in 1990| Public Administration is centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials formally responsible for their conduct. | 18- B. Guy Peters| Book published in 1990 They have the same theory| Public Administration is centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials formally responsible for their conduct. | 19- Frank J.
Thompson| Maryland (1918-1989). Book published in 1990| Public Administration is centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials formally responsible for their conduct. | 20- Robert B. Denhardt| Book published in 1995| Public administration is concerned with the management of public programs. | 21- John Stuart Mill| (1806-1873)England| Mill’s On Liberty addresses the nature and limits of the power that can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual.
One argument that Mill develops further than any previous philosopher is the harm principle. The harm principle holds that each individual has the right to act as he wants, so long as these actions do not harm others. | 22- Woodrow Wilson| December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924 USA| Public Administration is a detailed and systematic application of law. | 23- Max Weber| Germany. (1867-1920)| He explained public administration in terms of bureaucracy.
His essay on ‘Bureaucracy’ is a valuable contribution of the writer towards the study of public administration. He looks upon bureaucracy as a social structure meant to carry ‘community action’ into a rationally ordered ‘societal action’ His study has proved of immense value in studying power-relationships in an organization. | 24- Frederick W. Taylor| USA (1856-1915) Also known as Father of Scientific management. | He was famous for the time and motion study.
He was of the idea that both in public and private institutions the efficiency of work can be increase by identifying the one best way to do a work. He studied different methods in controlled environment and experimented to find procedures to adopt them who were most efficient. | 25- Henri Fayol| France, (1841-1925)| Management is neither an exclusive privilege nor a particular responsibility of the head or senior members of the business: it is an activity spread like all other activities, between head and members of the corporate body. | |