Contents A1. 2 I. Groups. 2 II. Characteristics of group behavior 2 III. Functions of formal groups.
3 IV. Stages of group development 4 A2. 5 I. Learning. 5 II. How did the diverse nature of group affect the committee’s actions?. 5 III. Learning process.
6 IV. Theories of learning. 7 Ø Classical Conditioning. 7 Ø Operant Conditioning. 7 Ø Social learning theory. 7 Ø Shaping Behavior 8 A3.
8 I. Attitudes. 8 II. If I were in Jose’s position. 8 III. Characteristics of good Leadership. 9 IV. Nature vs Nurture in Personality.
9 V. Theories of motivation. 10 Ø Herzberg’s two factor theory. 10 Ø Maslow – deficiency needs vs.
growth needs. 10 Ø Equity theory. 10 A4. 11 Leader 11 References. 13 A1.
I. Groups A group can be defined as two or more people freely accomplishedand interdepend together to achieve specific goals. According to Stephen Robbins, “A group may bedefined as two or more individuals.
Interacting and interdependent, who havecome together to achieve particular objectives” (S.Jeevithaa, N.D.). Basically there are two types of groups. They areformal and informal groups. For instance a group ofworkers. II.
Characteristicsof group behaviorDiversity is one of the group behavior found inthis case study. There were people with different backgrounds, ideas andpersonalities. Diversity does not mean simply being of different demography,color or gender.
Instead it is based on a person’s reflection on a certaingoal. Another characteristic is disharmony. The taskforce had different viewsand they had trouble coming to an agreement. In addition to this, ambiguity andindecisiveness, was also seen in the case study. The personnel assigned to the task force,took different goals and due to the ambiguity, and the inability of the chairto make the goal clear, the task force took different meanings and forget thetrue purpose of the task force.
Another characteristic of group behavior isperversion from the organization goal in decision making. The original goal ofthe management was to revolutionize and design a completely new product.However, the task force deviated from this goal and suggested other solutionsthat does not fulfill this goal.
Hence the taskforce chair was not able to takea decision for the organization and the true goal was not fulfilled. Likewisethe task force group were a mixed group. Thus they are from different countryand diverse culture. In addition they are from different companies anddepartments. That’s why they have different skills. Moreover they completelyworking a similar kind of organizations. Therefore they have a respectableknowledge about the coffins and designs.
III. Functionsof formal groups Formal groups fulfill twobasic functions. They are organizational functions and individual functions.
Organizationalfunctions are set specific goals for organization. In a formal organization theprimary goal is to establish an efficient working relationship & toestablish a clear chain of command. The effective work relationship is the mostimportant thing for the goals. By achieving the goals individually achieved theorganization as a whole will be benefited in achieving the eventual goals, HumanResource Development. It helps in other human resources development activitiessuch as recruitment, promotions, career planning and development and manpowerplanning.
The important part of an organization is its employees. A formalgroup gives the chance to treat the human resources within the organization. Inaddition establishing working relationship. In a formal organization theprimary goal is to establish an efficient working relationship and to establisha clear chain of command. The effective work relationship is the most importantthing for the goals. In Individual Function provide a problem-solving mechanismfor personal and interpersonal problems.
Thereforetaking a deliberate and systematic method to problem solving has been shown tobenefit group functioning and performance, satisfy individuals need for affiliation, developconfirm individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity, give individuals anopportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality, reduce theindividual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerlessness, provide aproblem-solving mechanism for social and interpersonal (Bunkova, 2015). IV. Stagesof group development Ø Forming stage is a situation that group membersdid not understand about their duty, rules and regulations. Therefore themembers cannot finish their job without leader or a manger. And they have tomotivate and encourage them so that can help them to feel as a part of a team. Ø Storming stage is a situation that when theteam members are prefer to use conflicting work styles start regularly. Peoplemay work differently however different working style cause unexpected problems.
Moving from this stage leader has to help all the members and respect in eachindividual task. Ø Normingstage is a period that team members are known each other better. Therefore theysocialize and able to ask each other for a help. At this point a group need toprovide a delegate for making agreement and consensus. Ø Performingstage is that all members can handle the duty without any problem. Thereforethey want developed more. And a leader should focus on developing performanceof the team.
Ø Adjourningstage is the final stage. Thus the leader of the team must be appreciated withthe achievement and show all member that their accomplishment is soproud. This stage help increase motivation. (Abudi, 2009) A2. I. LearningLearning has been defined functionally aschanges in behavior that result from experience or mechanistically as changesin the organism that result from experience (Houwer, 2013).
Theability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines. Therefore some learnings are immediateinduced by single events. For Example being burned by a hot ovenHowever much skill and knowledge accumulatesfrom repeated experiences.
II. Howdid the diverse nature of group affect the committee’s actions? Sincethe team members are from different organizations and from different functionalareas and have different cultural and educational backgrounds, they were notable to discuss the main goal of the organization and the taskforce’s truepurpose. The organization’s goal was to completely revolutionize the product.The taskforce’s job was to redesign the product and its manufacturing systems.However, due to the diversity of the group, this goal was lost quickly, andthey suggested to use the current designs for production.
They could not seewhy the new goal should be attained as they believed that the older models ofthe product will do just fine. Even after being constantly reminded of thegoal, the members always came back to not understanding why a new product isneeded, hence not understanding the true goal of the organization. Thereforethis diversity, clouded the judgment of the group to decide to recommend thecouncil of presidents to use existing designs. III. Learningprocess As we know Learning is a process ofdevelopment. The process beginswith an experience that the individual has had, followed by an opportunity toreflect on that experience.
Then peoples may abstract and draw conclusionsabout what they experienced and observed, leading to future actions in whichthe peoples experiment with different behaviors. This begins the process a newas individuals have new experiences based on their experimentation. And thesecond step is processing. During processing, individuals have a chance to reflect on observations theymade about each other, and the group as a whole through the experience thatjust happened.
To “process” something is commonly used when trying to workthrough something. Therefore individuals are working through what theyexperienced with each other. And the third step Generalization is the perception that humans use pastlearning in present situations of learning if the conditions in the situationsare regarded as similar. Furthermore taking action for real life situation usingunderstanding gained from the two stages. Based on the two stages individualmay develop action.
(Cherry, N.D.) IV. Theoriesof learning Ø Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is thelearning process that occurs, when two stimuli are paired together repeatedly.
First the first stimulus reminds a natural response by the subject while thesecond doesn’t. But after enough pairings together the second becomeconditioned and causes the response to happen.For example, Ifa student is bullied at school, they may start hating the school and respondwith fear at the very thought of school. Students might also hatred particularsubjects if they have been humiliated or punished by the particular teacher ofthe subject. This behavior might even continue throughout the academic careerof the student.Ø Operant Conditioning It is atype of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward orprevents a punishment. There are twomain components in operant conditioning.
They are reinforcement and punishment.Rein forcers make it more likely that you will do something again, whilepunishers make it less likely.For instance after finishing your dinner withyour family. You clear the table and wash the dishes. When you are done, yourmom gives you a big hug and says, “Thank you for helping me.
” In this situationher responses positively reinforcement if it makes you more likely to do again.Ø Social learning theoryIt’s a theory that says people are learning byobserving others or by straight experience. Therefore people look at others,these people called models because their modeling behavior is been observed.People are often reinforced for modeling the behavior of others. According to Albert Bandura, “social learning theory explains howpeople learn new behaviors, values, and attitudes” Forexample, a child might see a sibling receive a lollipop for behaving politelyand copy the sibling in the hope of getting a treat, for him. Ø Shaping BehaviorThe process of establishing abehavior that is not learned or performed by an individual at present isreferred to as Shaping.
And also the theory involves reinforcing behavior thatare successively closer and closer to the approximations of the desired, ortargeted, behavior. For example a teacher istrying to teach a student to speak in front of the whole classroom. Given thatthe student is a shy kid, he wouldn’t be able to give a speech right away.
So,instead of promising him some reward for giving a speech, rewards should begiven to behaviors that come close. Like, giving him a reward when he stands infront of the class. Again she said she will give him reward when he sayhello to the students. (LEARNING THEORIES, N.D.) A3.
I. AttitudesAttitude is how people feel towards a certainobject or a situation. Therefore it effects behavior.According to Schneider (1988), ‘Attitudes areevaluative reactions to persons, objects, and events.
This includes yourbeliefs and positive and negative feelings about the attitude object” (Amirah, N.D.) There are threecomponents of attitudes. They are effective, cognitive and behavioral.
II. IfI were in Jose’s position If I had been in Jose’s position, instead ofstarting the meeting with history of the organization, I would have started themeeting letting everyone know two things. The goal of the meeting, which was todesign a new product and tell everyone that existing models were too old and toassume they are not a solution. Enforcing these two points in the beginning ofthe meeting will help establish the goal, and make sure the meeting is headingin the right direction as they will have to come up with new designs. I wouldsend the personnel to discuss the decision with their organization heads and tellthem to send a decision after assuming the above mentioned steps.
III. Characteristicsof good Leadership If a person is a good leader he has to havesome definitive characteristics. One of these is honesty. If you value honestyas a key value your team will follow your lead and this honesty will bereflected upon your team. Another characteristic is the ability to delegate.Delegating your tasks to others is a sign of you trusting your team.Communication is also a very important characteristic.
If I can’t describe myvision to my team then we will all be working towards different goals, the sameas in the case study. One of the main characteristics of a leader is problemsolving. The leader should be able to identify the conflicts and problems andbring a solution to it.
As a member of a team we influence others to solveproblems collaboratively. A more important is to focus on the larger goal.Furthermore, a good leader should always have commitment to his work and shouldlead by example if he wants his team to work hard. Jose can become a goodleader by trying to attain these characteristics. He should learn bettercommunication skills so that he can keep his team working for the same goal.Likewise jose have to control over the group.
Furthermore he should be able toidentify the conflicts that was happening within the committee and solve them. IV. Naturevs Nurture in PersonalityNature is the view that behavior is the productof innate biological or genetic factors.
Like your height, your hair texture.And nurture is the view that behavior is the product of environmentalinfluences. For example theproduct of exposure, experience and learning on an individual. Therefore the nature-nurture debate is concerned with therelative contribution that both influences make to human behavior (Eagly, 2013).
V. Theoriesof motivation There are several theories of motivation. ButIn here I’ve selected the most well-known ones three theories.
Ø Herzberg’s two factor theory It is basically a motivation theory to all employees workharder. Therefore the theory believes in engaging with members of your team insuch a way that they give their very best performance. Came up with the theoryby asking the people to describe situations where they felt really good orreally bad about their jobs. Furthermore Herzberg believed that money is notthe only driver to good performance. In this theory contains two factor. Theyare motivation factor and hygiene factor. Motivation factor is factors thatmotivate people to work harder. Hygiene factor is essential factors that de-motivate people when not present.
(Ball, N.D.) Ø Maslow – deficiency needs vs.
growth needs Maslow’s theory states that people have a pyramid hierarchyof needs that they will satisfy from bottom to top. Starting from mere physiologicalsubsistence, they cover belonging to a social circle to pursuing your talentthrough self-actualization. Important to this theory is that Maslow felt thatunfulfilled needs lower on the ladder would inhibit the person from climbing tothe next step. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs applied to work situations impliesthat managers have the responsibility, firstly, to make sure their people’s shortageneeds are met.
This means, in broad terms, a safe environment and proper wages.Secondly, it implies creating a proper climate in which employees can developtheir fullest potential. Disappointment to do so would theoretically increaseemployee frustration and could result in poorer performance, lower jobsatisfaction, and increased withdrawal from the organization (O.Venugopalan, 2007). Ø Equity theory Equity theory states that people seek to maintain a balancebetween their inputs and the outcomes they receive, also in relation to theoutputs of others. Therefore any perceived inequity becomes a motivating stateof mind. People are motivated to behave in ways that restore or maintain equityin situations.
Adams suggested that the higher an individual’s perception of equity,the more motivated they will be and vice versa: if someone perceives an unfairenvironment, they will be de-motivated. And the easiest way to see the equity theory at work, andprobably the most common way it does impact employees, is when colleaguescompare the work they do to someone else that gets paid more than them. (Hawks, N.D.).A4. Leader Leadership is about working with people to donew things in a world which is increasingly complex and fast changing.
Leadership is not necessarily linked toauthority. It is about activating people to challenge the toughest problems andto do their best work. According to Chester Bernard “Leadershipis the ability of a superior, to influence the behavior of a subordinate orgroup and persuade them to follow a particular course of action” (Mielach, 2012).
A good leader needsto have some skills like, good communication, being self-aware, trust worthyetc. Leadership is the art ofmotivating or inspiring a group of people to act towards achieving a commongoal. There are numerous leaders out there.
I would choose a leader who havebeen successful in leading a group of people, an organization or the generalpublic. Functions of this leader includes: Engaging followers, integratingthem, catering to their needs, aspirations, and goals in a common organizationwhile making them better citizens, followers and leaders. A good example thatfits this category of leadership is “Barack Obama”. Barack Obama is the first African American tobe elected as the President of the United States and Commander in Chief.
He was born inHonolulu, Hawaii on August 4th, 1961. He went to Harvard Law School. After hisgraduation, he continued his legal work as a civil rights lawyer and as aprofessor, at the constitutional law at the University of Chicago. Furthermorehe won the presidential election against John McCain, his Republican opponentand started serving in the office in January 20, 2009. He became the 44thPresident of The United States of America. He is more well-known for being thefirst African-American who ever served in The White House.
Therefore hisleadership practices and principles have made him one of the mostdistinguished leaders of recent years (Husain, 2017). Charismatic leaders are defined as possessinghigh self-esteem, an idealized vision and an ability to motivate others. Theyare viewed as trustworthy, having high values and morals etc. which contributesto effective messaging and convincing communications. Therefore Obama is a Charismatic Leader.
He is a leader who, inspires in his followers. Furthermore heis a leader because of the position he has. A man who has shown different scopes to his personality, in avery public and representative way. And he will be remembered as one of thefinest presidents America has had – a man of character. BarackObama became a good leader becauseof his charisma.
And he is recognized as an inspiring and motivational speakerwith a distinct personality, charm, and strength. As a politician, his firstuse of influence is targeted toward voters. As president, he also must use hispowers of influence on members of Congress, leaders of other nations, as wellas business and community leaders. His influencing skills also includehumility, charm, the ability to negotiate, and the ability to facilitatebridge-building. To summarize in short, BarackObama’s knowledge of postmodernism and his appeal to the different culturalgroups across America (Blacks and Whites and other races) are some of whatcontributed to his success as a leader. He is a good example of a Charismatic leader. References Abudi, G. (2009, July 15).
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