Contents formal groups. 3 IV. Stages of group

A1. 2
I.       Groups. 2
II.     Characteristics of group
behavior 2
III.        Functions of formal groups. 3
IV.        Stages of group development 4
A2. 5
I.       Learning. 5
II.     How did the diverse nature
of group affect the committee’s actions?. 5
III.        Learning process. 6
IV.        Theories of learning. 7
Ø      Classical Conditioning. 7
Ø      Operant Conditioning. 7
Ø      Social learning theory. 7
Ø      Shaping Behavior 8
A3. 8
I.       Attitudes. 8
II.     If I were in Jose’s position. 8
III.        Characteristics of good Leadership. 9
IV.        Nature vs Nurture in Personality. 9
V.     Theories of motivation. 10
Ø      Herzberg’s two factor theory. 10
Ø      Maslow – deficiency needs vs. growth needs. 10
Ø      Equity theory. 10
A4. 11
Leader 11
References. 13











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A group can be defined as two or more people freely accomplished
and interdepend together to achieve specific goals. According to Stephen Robbins, “A group may be
defined as two or more individuals. Interacting and interdependent, who have
come together to achieve particular objectives” (S.Jeevithaa,
N.D.). Basically there are two types of groups. They are
formal and informal groups. For instance a group of


of group behavior

Diversity is one of the group behavior found in
this case study. There were people with different backgrounds, ideas and
personalities. Diversity does not mean simply being of different demography,
color or gender. Instead it is based on a person’s reflection on a certain
goal. Another characteristic is disharmony. The taskforce had different views
and they had trouble coming to an agreement. In addition to this, ambiguity and
indecisiveness, was also seen in the case study.  The personnel assigned to the task force,
took different goals and due to the ambiguity, and the inability of the chair
to make the goal clear, the task force took different meanings and forget the
true purpose of the task force. Another characteristic of group behavior is
perversion from the organization goal in decision making. The original goal of
the management was to revolutionize and design a completely new product.
However, the task force deviated from this goal and suggested other solutions
that does not fulfill this goal. Hence the taskforce chair was not able to take
a decision for the organization and the true goal was not fulfilled. Likewise
the task force group were a mixed group. Thus they are from different country
and diverse culture. In addition they are from different companies and
departments. That’s why they have different skills. Moreover they completely
working a similar kind of organizations. Therefore they have a respectable
knowledge about the coffins and designs.








of formal groups


Formal groups fulfill two
basic functions. They are organizational functions and individual functions. Organizational
functions are set specific goals for organization. In a formal organization the
primary goal is to establish an efficient working relationship & to
establish a clear chain of command. The effective work relationship is the most
important thing for the goals. By achieving the goals individually achieved the
organization as a whole will be benefited in achieving the eventual goals, Human
Resource Development. It helps in other human resources development activities
such as recruitment, promotions, career planning and development and manpower
planning. The important part of an organization is its employees. A formal
group gives the chance to treat the human resources within the organization. In
addition establishing working relationship. In a formal organization the
primary goal is to establish an efficient working relationship and to establish
a clear chain of command. The effective work relationship is the most important
thing for the goals. In Individual Function provide a problem-solving mechanism
for personal and interpersonal problems. Therefore
taking a deliberate and systematic method to problem solving has been shown to
benefit group functioning and performance, satisfy individuals need for affiliation, develop
confirm individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity, give individuals an
opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality, reduce the
individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerlessness, provide a
problem-solving mechanism for social and interpersonal (Bunkova, 2015).













of group development 











Ø  Forming stage is a situation that group members
did not understand about their duty, rules and regulations. Therefore the
members cannot finish their job without leader or a manger. And they have to
motivate and encourage them so that can help them to feel as a part of a team.


Ø  Storming stage is a situation that when the
team members are prefer to use conflicting work styles start regularly. People
may work differently however different working style cause unexpected problems.
Moving from this stage leader has to help all the members and respect in each
individual task.


Ø  Norming
stage is a period that team members are known each other better. Therefore they
socialize and able to ask each other for a help. At this point a group need to
provide a delegate for making agreement and consensus.


Ø  Performing
stage is that all members can handle the duty without any problem. Therefore
they want developed more. And a leader should focus on developing performance
of the team.


Ø  Adjourning
stage is the final stage. Thus the leader of the team must be appreciated with
the achievement and show all member that their accomplishment is so
proud.  This stage help increase motivation. (Abudi, 2009)




Learning has been defined functionally as
changes in behavior that result from experience or mechanistically as changes
in the organism that result from experience (Houwer, 2013). The
ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines. Therefore some learnings are immediate
induced by single events. For Example being burned by a hot oven
However much skill and knowledge accumulates
from repeated experiences. 


did the diverse nature of group affect the committee’s actions?


the team members are from different organizations and from different functional
areas and have different cultural and educational backgrounds, they were not
able to discuss the main goal of the organization and the taskforce’s true
purpose. The organization’s goal was to completely revolutionize the product.
The taskforce’s job was to redesign the product and its manufacturing systems.
However, due to the diversity of the group, this goal was lost quickly, and
they suggested to use the current designs for production. They could not see
why the new goal should be attained as they believed that the older models of
the product will do just fine. Even after being constantly reminded of the
goal, the members always came back to not understanding why a new product is
needed, hence not understanding the true goal of the organization. Therefore
this diversity, clouded the judgment of the group to decide to recommend the
council of presidents to use existing designs.
































As we know Learning is a process of
development. The process begins
with an experience that the individual has had, followed by an opportunity to
reflect on that experience. Then peoples may abstract and draw conclusions
about what they experienced and observed, leading to future actions in which
the peoples experiment with different behaviors. This begins the process a new
as individuals have new experiences based on their experimentation. And the
second step is processing. During processing, individuals have a chance to reflect on observations they
made about each other, and the group as a whole through the experience that
just happened. To “process” something is commonly used when trying to work
through something. Therefore individuals are working through what they
experienced with each other. And the third step Generalization is the perception that humans use past
learning in present situations of learning if the conditions in the situations
are regarded as similar. Furthermore taking action for real life situation using
understanding gained from the two stages. Based on the two stages individual
may develop action. (Cherry, N.D.)


of learning


Ø  Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning is the
learning process that occurs, when two stimuli are paired together repeatedly.
First the first stimulus reminds a natural response by the subject while the
second doesn’t. But after enough pairings together the second become
conditioned and causes the response to happen.

For example, If
a student is bullied at school, they may start hating the school and respond
with fear at the very thought of school. Students might also hatred particular
subjects if they have been humiliated or punished by the particular teacher of
the subject. This behavior might even continue throughout the academic career
of the student.

Ø  Operant Conditioning

 It is a
type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or
prevents a    punishment. There are two
main components in operant conditioning. They are reinforcement and punishment.
Rein forcers make it more likely that you will do something again, while
punishers make it less likely.

For instance after finishing your dinner with
your family. You clear the table and wash the dishes. When you are done, your
mom gives you a big hug and says, “Thank you for helping me.” In this situation
her responses positively reinforcement if it makes you more likely to do again.

Ø  Social learning theory

It’s a theory that says people are learning by
observing others or by straight experience. Therefore people look at others,
these people called models because their modeling behavior is been observed.
People are often reinforced for modeling the behavior of others. According to Albert Bandura, “social learning theory explains how
people learn new behaviors, values, and attitudes”

example, a child might see a sibling receive a lollipop for behaving politely
and copy the sibling in the hope of getting a treat, for him.


Ø  Shaping Behavior

The process of establishing a
behavior that is not learned or performed by an individual at present is
referred to as Shaping. And also the theory involves reinforcing behavior that
are successively closer and closer to the approximations of the desired, or
targeted, behavior. 

For example a teacher is
trying to teach a student to speak in front of the whole classroom. Given that
the student is a shy kid, he wouldn’t be able to give a speech right away. So,
instead of promising him some reward for giving a speech, rewards should be
given to behaviors that come close. Like, giving him a reward when he stands in
front of the class. Again she said she will give him reward when he say
hello to the students. (LEARNING THEORIES, N.D.)




Attitude is how people feel towards a certain
object or a situation. Therefore it effects behavior.

According to Schneider (1988), ‘Attitudes are
evaluative reactions to persons, objects, and events. This includes your
beliefs and positive and negative feelings about the attitude object” (Amirah, N.D.) There are three
components of attitudes. They are effective, cognitive and behavioral.

I were in Jose’s position

If I had been in Jose’s position, instead of
starting the meeting with history of the organization, I would have started the
meeting letting everyone know two things. The goal of the meeting, which was to
design a new product and tell everyone that existing models were too old and to
assume they are not a solution. Enforcing these two points in the beginning of
the meeting will help establish the goal, and make sure the meeting is heading
in the right direction as they will have to come up with new designs. I would
send the personnel to discuss the decision with their organization heads and tell
them to send a decision after assuming the above mentioned steps.







of good Leadership


If a person is a good leader he has to have
some definitive characteristics. One of these is honesty. If you value honesty
as a key value your team will follow your lead and this honesty will be
reflected upon your team. Another characteristic is the ability to delegate.
Delegating your tasks to others is a sign of you trusting your team.
Communication is also a very important characteristic. If I can’t describe my
vision to my team then we will all be working towards different goals, the same
as in the case study. One of the main characteristics of a leader is problem
solving. The leader should be able to identify the conflicts and problems and
bring a solution to it. As a member of a team we influence others to solve
problems collaboratively. A more important is to focus on the larger goal.
Furthermore, a good leader should always have commitment to his work and should
lead by example if he wants his team to work hard. Jose can become a good
leader by trying to attain these characteristics. He should learn better
communication skills so that he can keep his team working for the same goal.
Likewise jose have to control over the group. Furthermore he should be able to
identify the conflicts that was happening within the committee and solve them.



vs Nurture in Personality

Nature is the view that behavior is the product
of innate biological or genetic factors. Like your height, your hair texture.
And nurture is the view that behavior is the product of environmental
influences. For example the
product of exposure, experience and learning on an individual. Therefore the nature-nurture debate is concerned with the
relative contribution that both influences make to human behavior (Eagly, 2013).











of motivation

There are several theories of motivation. But
In here I’ve selected the most well-known ones three theories.

Ø  Herzberg’s two factor theory


It is basically a motivation theory to all employees work
harder. Therefore the theory believes in engaging with members of your team in
such a way that they give their very best performance. Came up with the theory
by asking the people to describe situations where they felt really good or
really bad about their jobs. Furthermore Herzberg believed that money is not
the only driver to good performance. In this theory contains two factor. They
are motivation factor and hygiene factor. Motivation factor is factors that
motivate people to work harder. Hygiene factor is essential factors that de-
motivate people when not present. (Ball, N.D.)


Ø  Maslow – deficiency needs vs. growth needs


Maslow’s theory states that people have a pyramid hierarchy
of needs that they will satisfy from bottom to top. Starting from mere physiological
subsistence, they cover belonging to a social circle to pursuing your talent
through self-actualization. Important to this theory is that Maslow felt that
unfulfilled needs lower on the ladder would inhibit the person from climbing to
the next step. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs applied to work situations implies
that managers have the responsibility, firstly, to make sure their people’s shortage
needs are met. This means, in broad terms, a safe environment and proper wages.
Secondly, it implies creating a proper climate in which employees can develop
their fullest potential. Disappointment to do so would theoretically increase
employee frustration and could result in poorer performance, lower job
satisfaction, and increased withdrawal from the organization (O.Venugopalan, 2007).


Ø  Equity theory


Equity theory states that people seek to maintain a balance
between their inputs and the outcomes they receive, also in relation to the
outputs of others. Therefore any perceived inequity becomes a motivating state
of mind. People are motivated to behave in ways that restore or maintain equity
in situations. Adams suggested that the higher an individual’s perception of equity,
the more motivated they will be and vice versa: if someone perceives an unfair
environment, they will be de-motivated. And the easiest way to see the equity theory at work, and
probably the most common way it does impact employees, is when colleagues
compare the work they do to someone else that gets paid more than them. (Hawks, N.D.).




Leadership is about working with people to do
new things in a world which is increasingly complex and fast changing. Leadership is not necessarily linked to
authority. It is about activating people to challenge the toughest problems and
to do their best work. According to Chester Bernard “Leadership
is the ability of a superior, to influence the behavior of a subordinate or
group and persuade them to follow a particular course of action” (Mielach, 2012). A good leader needs
to have some skills like, good communication, being self-aware, trust worthy


Leadership is the art of
motivating or inspiring a group of people to act towards achieving a common
goal. There are numerous leaders out there. I would choose a leader who have
been successful in leading a group of people, an organization or the general
public. Functions of this leader includes: Engaging followers, integrating
them, catering to their needs, aspirations, and goals in a common organization
while making them better citizens, followers and leaders. A good example that
fits this category of leadership is “Barack Obama”. Barack Obama is the first African American to
be elected as the President of the United States and Commander in Chief. He was born in
Honolulu, Hawaii on August 4th, 1961. He went to Harvard Law School. After his
graduation, he continued his legal work as a civil rights lawyer and as a
professor, at the constitutional law at the University of Chicago. Furthermore
he won the presidential election against John McCain, his Republican opponent
and started serving in the office in January 20, 2009. He became the 44th
President of The United States of America. He is more well-known for being the
first African-American who ever served in The White House. Therefore his
leadership practices and principles have made him one of the most
distinguished leaders of recent years (Husain, 2017).


Charismatic leaders are defined as possessing
high self-esteem, an idealized vision and an ability to motivate others. They
are viewed as trustworthy, having high values and morals etc. which contributes
to effective messaging and convincing communications. Therefore Obama is a Charismatic Leader. He is a leader who, inspires in his followers. Furthermore he
is a leader because of the position he has. A man who has shown different scopes to his personality, in a
very public and representative way. And he will be remembered as one of the
finest presidents America has had – a man of character.


Obama became a good leader because
of his charisma. And he is recognized as an inspiring and motivational speaker
with a distinct personality, charm, and strength. As a politician, his first
use of influence is targeted toward voters. As president, he also must use his
powers of influence on members of Congress, leaders of other nations, as well
as business and community leaders. His influencing skills also include
humility, charm, the ability to negotiate, and the ability to facilitate


To summarize in short, Barack
Obama’s knowledge of postmodernism and his appeal to the different cultural
groups across America (Blacks and Whites and other races) are some of what
contributed to his success as a leader. He is a good example of a Charismatic leader.  






















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