Control of substances hazardous to health is commonly

Control of substances hazardous to health is commonly referred to
as ‘COSHH’. Under the control of COSHH regulation 2002, employers are
responsible for either preventing or reducing the risk or exposure to things
which are potentially hazardous to health. Almost every engineering
organisation uses substances which can cause harm to employees. These
substances can come in many different forms, such as:


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a ford garage there are various harmful products present such as epoxy and

Isocyanate, which
are commonly found in spray paints. These substances need to be controlled, as
breathing the paint mist may cause asthma. In addition, they can also cause
dermatitis by skin contact.



In order to minimise the exposure to workers, employees have to
undertake a risk assessment. This
risk assessment is beneficial, because it allows you to understand the
potential risks associated and act accordingly. The main objective is to
prevent or control such substances, which can cause harm. Some of the ways in
which you can control this, is by using controlled equipment, controlled
procedures or providing training to workers, so they can follow the correct
control measure and keep themselves safe.


COSHH training is required, it allows employees to identify
measure and handle the exposure to substances that cause harm. This training
therefore safeguards employees. The COSHH training course helps you with:

Understanding of how and which substances are
potentially hazardous to health.Knowledge of exposure times and limits.Greater understanding or how to control
exposure and make your workplace a safe place to workKnow the dangers associated.The consequences of COSHH regulations not
being followed correctly.

Some of the basic equipment used to
control substances hazardous to health includes general ventilation, extraction
systems and enclosure in places where the air is not


When employees are handling hazardous substances, it is
absolutely essential that they are wearing the correct Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE). It is the employer’s responsibility, to ensure that PPE is
provided and being used correctly. PPE is equipment that is used to protect the
user against risks and hazards at work. Examples of Personal Protective Equipment that employees
at Ford garages have to use may include items such as gloves, safety helmets,
safety glasses, high visibility clothing, safety boots, face shields, safety
harnesses and respiratory protective equipment (RPE). All these protective
equipment will ensure that the employees are safe from any potential hazards
and injuries. A person’s body can be exposed to hazardous substance by
many ways, which are listed below:


One of the ways a person can get exposed is by inhaling
hazardous substances, such as bad fumes and gases. If the nose is not
protected, it can cause these substances to attack your respiratory system,
which includes things such as your nose, throat, lungs and other different
parts of the body.

Physical damage:

By touching substances directly or if the substance splashes
on you, it can cause physical damage such as burns etc. These substances are
harmful, and often irritate the skin when come in contact.


One of the main ways we expose our bodies to hazardous
substances is through our mouths. If you have just handles controlled
substances, and start to eat without washing your hands, it causes the harmful
substances to attach to the food and are then swallowed. This is why when
handling substances like this it is crucial to wash your hands before and after
your shift.


You can also prevent exposure, by substituting substances
with another substance. The advantage of this is that it will reduce/remove the
risk of exposure. If you were to find an alternative substance, you should
consider the following:

Decide if the substance or process is a hazard
you are going to use is a threat.Decide what the alternative areThink about the pros and cons if you use those
alternatives.Compare the alternatives with the process and
substance you are using.Decide if it is safe to substitute the
substance.Substitutive is and check to see if it is for
the best.

Main benefits

year, many employees/workers are ill due to hazardous substances. One of the
main illnesses is Lung cancer and skin disease. This is associated to many
working conditions like oil and toxic fumes in engineering industries. These
diseases cost millions each year to industry, society and the people affected.

following the correct COSHH regulations, a company can save millions and more
effective, as they do not have to replace trained workers. In addition, they
can boost production and cut waste. In business healthy workers lead to healthy

Some of the symbols for COSHH












When using any product that a COSHH symbol, the manufacture
or person providing the product should provide a safety data sheet. This sheet
allows you to understand the risks and shows how to deal with them.

Employers should teach employees how to deal with any
accidents and emergencies. They need to have arrangements in place, in case
anything goes wrong. They need the correct equipment present, to deal with the

In my
chosen engineering organisation, which is the Ford COSHH data sheets and other
files associated with COSHH are kept in the health and safety managers’ office.
This means that in case of any emergency, all employees/employers know where to

After they are done using the chemicals, they have to
dispose the chemicals into a metal bin. This ensures that the chemicals are
safe away from people. If by any chance the chemical spills then a special
powder is spread around the chemical, to absorb it. Ford have set up a special
recycling scheme, which ensures they cab safety dispose any chemical waste,
without harming the environment in any way.

1998 (Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations)

RIDDOR is the reporting of injuries, Diseases and Dangerous
Occurrences. This is part of the RIDDOR regulation 1995. Employers at Ford are requires
by law to report any specified incidents in the workplace. Incidents can
include; work related death, major injuries and accidents which require the
employer to be off for a minimum of 7 days. In addition, they need to report
any work related diseases even dangerous occurrences (near miss accidents).
Other specifies injuries include:

Fractures except the fingers, thumbs and toes,Any injury which can reduce your eyesight or
permanently lose your eyesight,Loss of unconsciousness caused by head injury
orSerious burns which cover over 10% of the body
and also which causes a huge amount of damage to the eyes, respiratory system
and other organs

Work related injuries/accidents only have to be reported, if
someone is injured whilst at work. Work related accidents can occur due to
various reasons. For example, how the work was carried out, the condition of
the workplace, the safety of the machinery/equipment used.


Any specified injuries/accidents which are reported, are kept in
records. The advantage of keeping suitable and accurate records is that it
helps you to identify any patterns in accidents and injuries. Therefore, this
will help you when undertaking your risk assessments. In addition, when you
process a work related claim, your insurance company will request to see the
records. It is essential that the employees personal data records are kept private
and confidential, in order to comply with the Data Protection Act.

Another requirement is that companies with more than 10 employees
are required to have an accident book under the social security law. The accident book can be ordered for ‘The
Stationery Office’ (TSO- formerly HMSO- Her Majesty’s Stationery Office). Any
record of reportable injuries, accidents, dangerous occurrences or diseases,
must be kept in a formal and well organised manner. The records can be kept in
places such as a file, computer, accident book or written log.

RIDDOR record books at Ford
must be kept for at least 3 years. However, it is strongly advised to keep them
for a minimum of 6 years, in order to allow time for any civil litigation to be
made. Employers at Ford must ensure the record includes; the date and method of
reporting, the data, time and location of the incident, personal details of
those involved and a brief description of the nature of the disease or

Dangerous occurrences are near miss events. Not all near miss
occurrences have to be reported. Examples of dangerous occurrences linked to
workplace include: plant or equipment coming into contact with overhead power
lines, accidently releasing a substance which could potentially harm you or
others around, overturning or failure of lifting equipment and load-bearing

Ford has to report any diseases,
deaths or injuries to HSE. Reporting an accident is not required for minor
injuries such as blisters or cuts. However, if an incident like suicide occurs
then that does have to be reported. Furthermore, if a person is ill for more
than 7 consecutive days, then it will have to be reported to HSE. For example,
if an employee gets into an accident but are off for a few days then it is not
a reportable incident. It is absolutely essential for Ford to report any
incidents that happens to a member of the public or other people who are not
part of the workforce.

LOLER – The Lifting Operations Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998


The Lifting Operations Lifting Equipment Regulation often
referred to as LOLER ensures that companies follow correct procedures or have
control over lifting equipment. This includes all business/organisations that
use lifting equipment, regardless if they own the equipment or not. All lifting
operations, that involve lifting equipment must be checked and properly planned
by a skilled person. In addition, the skilled person has to appropriately
supervise the workforce. This ensures that all lifting operations are carried
out in a safe manner.

The LOLER legislation was introduced in 1998. It was
introduced to help significantly reduce the risks associated with lifting
equipment. Till now it ensures the number of injuries and deaths are kept a low
number. Before using lifting equipment such as cranes, you should plan them
properly. Planning properly reduces the risk of any damage happening.

The correct equipment is required for the lifting operation.
LOLER requires that the lifting equipment must have strength and stability.
When the load is lifted, it should have the ability to firmly grip the load and
significantly reduce the risk of the load falling.

Lifting equipment will contain a marking on them with a
number and the letters SWL followed after. SWL is an acronym for Safe Working
Load. The SWL is the maximum load that the equipment can hold securely. This
ensures that the equipment only lift what they are capable of, which increases
the level of safety. Any lifting operation must be pre-planned by a skilled,
competent person. They have to be supervised correctly, to guarantee everything
is right. This ensures that all lifting operations are carried out in a safe

Examples of lifting equipment include:

Vehicle liftsForkliftsCranes Lifting accessoriesGoods/passenger lift

Examples of lifting accessorises include:

HooksRope slingsMagnetic devicesEyeboltsVacuum devices and chain

Employers at Ford, ensure that lifting operations area carried out safely
and swiftly. This is to minimise the risk of failure, as it can damage the
lifting equipment or even the person operating the equipment. First they would
have to carry out risk assessments. If they can highlight any potential risks
beforehand, they can try and find ways to minimise the chance of the risk
becoming reality.


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