Conventional potentially beneficial miRNA before implementation might allow

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Last updated: August 19, 2019

Conventional periodontitis therapy mainly focusses on mechanic removal of plaque.Therefore, scaling and root planing as well as instructionsfor oral hygiene and antibiotictreatment are included to prevent further progression of periodontal tissue damage.Severe tissue degradation is treated surgically via guided tissue regeneration,application of growth factors or dental implants to support tissue regeneration.Nevertheless, clinical treatment aiming for complete and permanent regeneration ofperiodontal tissues is challenging (Chen et al.

, 2012). Consequently, there is a highdemand to develop new approaches. Promising treatment strategies are discussed andcover (I) the implementation of adult stem cells, (II) gene therapy, (III) electricalstimulation to support osteogenesis, (VI) application of chemical substances to inducetissue regeneration or to attenuate inflammation, and (V) antimicrobial therapy viaultrasonic or oxygen treatment (Elangovan et al., 2009; Kumar et al.

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, 2012; Ramseier etal., 2012; Gaffen et al., 2014; Bright et al., 2015).Numerous studies on the impact of stem cells on tissue regeneration were performed.Bright and colleagues (2015) reviewed the application of periodontal ligament stem cellsin different animal models, i.e.

, dog, rat, pig and sheep. It was shown that significantimprovement in bone, cementum and connective tissue regeneration was achieved.Additionally, transfection of stem cells with potentially beneficial miRNA beforeimplementation might allow influencing periodontal tissue regeneration orinflammatory modulation in terms of stimulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine release.Currently only little is known on the use of dental stem cells in the inflammation setup,and further studies are urgently necessary.Furthermore, anti-inflammatory treatment could prevent massive tissue damagebeforehand or after conservative plaque removal. It is known that inflammationresolving mediators like resolvins have regulatory impact on immune cells.

Resolvins areendogenously produced from Omega-3 fatty acids, and resolvins of D1 and E1 are wellstudied. These pro-resolving resolvins decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine release,PMN activity, transmigration and release of reactive oxygen species, while promotinganti-inflammatory cytokine secretion, antimicrobial clearance and apoptosis of PMNs 

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