Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Gail Morton
Last updated: June 25, 2019
Deanna DatuinDecember 12, 2017Geography 110Professor BjerkeFinal Exam1. RocksThe rock cycle shows the variousgeologic processes that act to transform one rock type into another. Fromsedimentary rock, to metamorphic rock, to igneous rock, and back around again.Let’s say that the rock cycle starts with sediment. The sediment is thenlithified to form sedimentary rock. From there, it can go two ways. It can betransformed into metamorphic rock by the head and pressure when it is burieddeep within the crust or it can be weathered/transported back into its originalform. In reaching the metamorphic form, it is then melted into magma from beingdeep beneath the Earth’s surface or transformed back into sediment.
The magmais then goes through crystallization to form igneous rock. And from igneousrock, it is either transformed to metamorphic rock or broken down back intosediment. Another name for the continentallithosphere is the continental crust. This layer consists of the continents andthe continental shelves that are formed from igneous and sedimentary rocks.Although the oceanic crust is considerably thicker than the continental crust,the continental crust is less dense. Earth’s surface is covered by about 40% ofthe continental crust but it makes up about 70% of the Earth’s crust.
It wasderived from a differentiation of oceanic crust, a process that was a result ofvolcanism and subduction. Now the difference between the continentallithosphere and the oceanic lithosphere is that the oceanic lithosphere isdenser than the continental lithosphere and is mainly made of a mafic crust andultramafic mantle. As it ages and moves away from the mid-ocean ridge,conductive cooling converts the hot asthenosphere into lithospheric mantlecausing it to thicken. When tectonic plates come together, the mature oceaniclithosphere sinks underneath the overriding lithosphere. And while new oceaniclithosphere is constantly being produces, it is recycled back at subduction zones,making the oceanic lithosphere much younger than the continental lithosphere. 2. Greenhouse Gases and Climate ChangeThere are three things that we, ashumans, can do to combat global warming. For one, we can eliminate or limitour use of fossil fuels.
Like the burning of coal, oil and natural gas. Fossilfuels are one of the biggest reasons why global warming is occurring. Inburning fossil fuels, it releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere andcontributing to climate change. In reducing or eliminating our use of fossilfuels we can reduce the environmental degradation.
Carbon dioxide is a verycommon greenhouse gas. In reducing the release of carbon dioxide into theatmosphere, we can reduce the warming of the earth which affects the melting ofthe glaciers of the world and therefore raising the sea levels which willeventually flood the states and cities along the coasts. Another reason why weshould reduce our fossil fuel use is due to public health issues.
They are notenvironment friendly and cause serious health concerns. We can reduce the riskof pollution-related diseases that kill millions of children a year, 7 millionof which are premature deaths. People that live in areas with a large amount oftraffic are at a higher risk due to the higher levels of air pollution. Another thing we can do is to stopcutting down trees.
It is possible that the Amazon and other forests may be thebest hope for limiting climate change because they act as the lungs as theearth. Taking in the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and releasing oxygen.Cutting and burning down these forests contribute 1.5 billion metric tons ofcarbon to the atmosphere. This is about 20% of human-made greenhouse gases thatcould easily be avoided. If we could balance the amount of wood that is cutdown with the amount of new trees that are being grown, a significant chunk of emissionscan be eliminated. And a final thing we can do is to overallbe efficient.
We can make a bigger impact just by simply being efficient. Byhaving more energy efficient air conditioners, refrigerators and otherappliances can cut down your electricity bills. Weatherproofing windows canalso reduce the heating and cooling bills. Switching to solar power can alsohelp in combatting global warming. Harvesting the power of the sun is a goodway of cutting down on the use of fossil fuels that are not reusable. Evenswitching to compact fluorescent lightbulbs can save many kilowatt-hours.3.
Physical Geography Tourism Project Write UpSince the San Andreas Fault runsabout 750 miles throughout California from North to South, San Bernardino isactually not that far from the fault. There are different locations in whichyou can visit the fault. But one of the closest places to visit the fault isBlue Cut. From San Bernardino to Blue Cut is about 20 minutes. And the best wayto get there is to take the 215. Here are the directions:https://www.google.
com/maps/dir/San+Bernardino,+California/Blue+Cut+Trail+Marker,+467-,+625+Historic+Rte+66,+San+Bernardino,+CAemail@example.com,-117.5188205,11z/am=t/data=!3m1!4b1!4m14!4m13!1m5!1m1!1s0x80c3537de2fdb8f3:0x2867c6788c87c28d!2m2!1d-117.2897652!2d34.1083449!1m5!1m1!1s0x80c34683c5efae47:0xe10236a275d765f7!2m2!1d-117.4594214!2d34.2668186!3e0Some information about the fault. The San Andreas Fault is actuallyformed from two tectonic plates.
The Pacific Plate on the west and the NorthAmerican Plate on the east. It cuts through many rocks along the coastal regionof California. It runs more than 750 miles long and goes down into the earth atleast ten miles. From the fault, there are many smaller faults that branch offof it.
There are many things that reveal the presence of the fault. From theair, one can see an arrangement of lakes, bays and valleys along a lineartrough. The features are less noticeable from the ground. If one were to drivenear San Francisco or through Cajon Pass or Tejon Pass, they wouldn’t realizethat they were in the San Andreas Fault zone. But if you looked hard enough andinspected the landscape carefully enough, you can find evidence of the fault. Onething that tourists should know is that this is considered to be a transformstrike-slip fault. There is some movement that has occurred along the fault.According to an article by Sandra S.
Schulz and Robert E. Wallace, “Blocks onopposite sides of the San Andreas fault move horizontally. If a person stood onone side of the fault and looked across it, the block on the opposite sidewould appear to have moved to the right. Geologists refer to this type of faultdisplacement as right-lateral strike-slip.”https://pubs.
usgs.gov/gip/earthq3/safaultgip.html4. Local Flora and FaunaThere is one animal that I seearound where I live. · Commonname : Western Long-tailed Brush Lizard· Scientificname : Urosaurus graciosus graciosus· Where itis originally from? It can be found in the Mojave desert and the SonoranDeserts in the states of California, Arizona and Nevada. Where it originatesfrom is not too far from where I live.
The deserts are just a couple hours’drive, so it’s not too surprising to see these lizards. · Why did Iselect this species? I decided to choose this species because it is notoften that I see a lizard. Especially moving from Northern to SouthernCalifornia.
So I found it interesting to see a lizard climb up the wall in mybackyard and along the sides of my house.· Is itbeneficial or harmful to the local area? From my research, it doesn’t seemthat these lizards are beneficial or harmful to the area. They feed on smaller invertebratesand some plant material occasionally. But in terms of defending or attacking,it relies on its color to act as camouflage, lying still in hopes that thepredator will not see it.