Diabetes was once diagnosed by tasting urine! The good news is that we now have machines that test urine for us. Unfortunately there is still no cure for diabetes but there are some treatments. Diabetes is caused by defects of the endocrine system which regulates most hormones and consists of many glands. However there are many diseases that may occur in the endocrine system and scientists keep trying to find treatments for all of these diseases, but some are just incurable. So, what are some diseases and treatments?If the human body develops a goiter, a bump the size of a softball will manifest in the throat! This may all be because of an iodine deficiency. The human body needs a certain amount of iodine in order to function but too much can be fatal. Too little iodine can cause a disease in the Endocrine system called Goiter. Goiter is an Iodine deficiency so goiter can be treated by taking prescribed doses of iodine. Table salt has potassium iodide and has greatly reduced the number of cases per year. The size, shape, and texture of the thyroid gland can help physicians diagnose the disease. Of course if there is a large lump in the patient’s throat goiter is probably present, although there are other diseases that cause large bumps in the throat. Goiter eventually diminishes but afterwards the patient might have to take thyroxine pills if thyroxine levels are off so the Goiter doesnt lead to other problems. If a large lump develops in the thyroid Goiter could be a possibility so be careful!Diabetes is a disease that occurs if the pancreas is not creating enough insulin. Diabetes can also form if cells in the immune system do not react to the insulin. Insulin is used to help regulate blood sugar levels. There is no known cure for diabetes yet, but scientists are searching for a cure. People with diabetes try to keep the disease type under control. Some people use a pump that sends insulin directly through the bloodstream. Sometimes diabetes will cause problems with the eyes which can be corrected with laser eye surgery. Doctors can use blood and urine samples to diagnose diabetes. A healthy diet can help but some may have to take prescribed amounts of insulin. Many people with diabetes might have heart problems such as heart attack stroke or high blood pressure. Insulin was discovered in the 1920’s and this discovery has helped people with diabetes and has helped to escalate research on diabetes. In some cases diabetes can be treated using an anti-diuretic hormone replacement. Type one diabetes is the most common type in children. Make sure that a doctor is seen immediately because diabetes can escalate into other diseases.Thyroid cancers are the most common type of cancer. Thyroid cancer is also the fastest growing cancer in men and women. Thyroid cancers can form Thyroid nodules which are lumps on the thyroid. Thyroid cancer is also a lump on the thyroid. A smaller lump is less likely to be cancerous. Women account for 75% of cases. Most thyroid cancers and nodules have to be removed. If the patient is having trouble swallowing seeing a doctor is the best course of action. If the doctor feels lumps on the patient’s throat tests will need to be conducted to find out what the lump is. The doctor will probably first have the patient swallow a small dose of Iodine to see how much the thyroid absorbs. The less the nodule/tumor absorbs the better. This test can help doctors to determine whether this bump is benign or cancerous. Doctors also must figure out if the nodule/tumor is solid or if the lump is a fluid filled cyst. Unfortunately, if not treated the nodule/tumor can lead to diabetes or much worse! Pituitary dwarfism occurs when the pituitary gland is not producing enough growth hormone. This can lead to lack of height due to low levels of growth hormone. X-radiation (X-ray), Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) , and Computed Tomography Scans (CT Scan), can help diagnose the issue. The patient may have to be hospitalized if the disorder is caused by environmental or emotional problems. The endocrine system is very important, regulating most hormones. Unfortunately, many diseases occur in the endocrine system. However there are treatments for most diseases. Scientists have come a long way in the past hundred years or so and treatments for all diseases are getting better. Along with these scientists they bring better medicine and better doctors. We can only hope that one day some incurable diseases are curable.