Disasters have always been caused by theactivities of man or other organisms taking a toll on the state of nature,sometimes on a sudden occurrence and sometimes its effects slowly increasethrough time (USAID, 2011). Mainly, human advancements like urbanization andtechnological developments affect these changes that affect nature, which inturn causes the disasters and hazards that humans experience to this day. Thesedisasters have a hand in setting human advancement to hinder. Disaster mitigation isthe term used for a set of methodology on which eliminate or reduce the risksor even the impacts itself caused by hazards in a specific area for a specificscenario (Public Safety Canada, 2015). Disaster mitigation may vary accordingto a specific hazard, human or natural, or they may also be approaches whichapply to many disaster scenarios.
The United Nations International Strategy forDisaster Reduction or UNISDR (2009) defines resilience as the “ability of a system, community or societyexposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from theeffects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through thepreservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions”.The ecosystem or area’s ability to “resile” depends on its manpower andresources available and organizational direction, which dictates the state ofthe area’s closeness to its “original state” whether it is close or far fromit. Philippines is a smallarchipelagic country located in between the south china sea and northwestpacific ocean, that is composed of 7107 islands across 1850km from north tosouth, total coastline of 235,973km long, of a total land area of approximately300,000 sq. km., to which land forms vary from flat fields that growagricultural crops for food production, to numerous hills and valleys, and avast amount of mountains. The Philippines experience varied temperatures andprecipitation, to which climatic status is further affected by alternatingrotation of drought and flood. Typhoons often pass through this archipelagiccountry with varying levels of intensity among the provinces across the country(Human Development Network, 2013).
The Philippines is amongthe most disaster-prone countries among all the others. It lies within the”Pacific Ring of Fire”, which scientists refer to a region of the Earth whereintectonic plates often shift and grind on one another often causing varyinglevels of seismic activity across the country, causing historic disastrousearthquakes and volcanic eruptions throughout the Philippine history. Otherthan seismic activities, Philippines also often experience numerous typhoons andtidal waves because it is located in the most active typhoon belt of thePacific (Steinberg D.
J., 2000). Having these disasters occur in the countryaffect the very livelihood of the Filipino people, but inhabitants of thisbeautiful country remain to be hopeful and positive despite the tragedies thatbefall on the citizens. PAG-ASA(Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration)devised a system on naming typhoons that enter the Philippine Area ofResponsibility. According to the weather bureau, the names for the 2017typhoons that entered the PAR were named on a predetermined list to which orderis based on its order of entering the PAR. A specific system was also devisedby the weather bureau in identifying the intensity of the typhoon, signals 1through 5, which has corresponding characteristics such as intensity of impactsof the winds and its speed.
During 2009, typhoon Ondoy (Ketsana)hit the philippines and was dubbed as one of the worst typhoonswhich caused disastrous flooding in NCR and nearby provinces (Olan, 2014;Romulo, 2009). More than 4.9 million people were affected by this typhoonwhile 464 people were killed, 529injured and 37 missing. The typhoon and flooding caused 11 billion pesos worthof damage to the agriculture and infrastructures. The flooding also caused anoutbreak of leptospirosis, which was more than half of the year’s reportedcases. Typhoon Milenyo(Xangsane) was the 2006’s 13th tropical cyclone that hitthe Philippines, which caused flooding in NCR and regions IV-VII, that caused6.6 billion pesos worth of infrastructural and agricultural damage to the areasaffected (GMA, 2009). TyphoonGlenda (Rammasun) was one of the most recent typhoon that shook thePhilippines, leaving a staggering damage worth 38 billion pesos on agricultureand infrastructures.
During the typhoon, the total numbers were more than 4.6billion people wereaffected, 106 killed, 1250 injured, and 5 missing (NDRRMC, 2014). Philippinesexperiences numerous disastrous typhoons resulting in Floods, rendering theaffected areas difficult to cope with the socio-economic and Physical impacts.Laguna is one of the most affected areas in the Philippines by flooding causedby devastating typhoons that hit the country.
Municipalities around the Lagunalake especially Los Banos and Bay are highly flood-prone areas (Lasco &Zamora, 2015). Bay is a town surrounding the Lake that has 4080 hectares ofland area and is divided to 15 villages or barangay,one of which is brgy. Santo Domingo (Bantayan, et.
al., 2014). SIGNIFICANCEOF THE STUDY The resultsof the study will be used to develop flood-risk managementstrategies for barangay Santo Domingo. Flood Hazard map (with purok location) and evacuation site map will serve as tools for flood management and disaster risk reduction. OBJECTIVESOF THE STUDY• To determine association of typhoonawareness, mitigation, and resilience practices with the socio-economic profileof the residents of Barangay Santo Domingo, Bay, Laguna; • To locate the Flood-prone areas andpotential evacuation sites in Barangay Santo Domingo using GIS;• To develop recommendations to promoteawareness and reduce the impacts of typhoons in Barangay Santo Domingo.