Do you might think that you know all about the Roman Empire ? The Roman Empire was one of the most important empires in the world. People lived in the area of Rome As early as 800s BC. We know very little about how they lived.
Would it surprise you think that the Ancient Romans were as curious about their early History as we are today? Rome’s leader wanted their city to have a very good past.The early Romans believed their history began with a hero Aeneas. Aeneas fled Troy when the Greeks destroyed the city during the Trojan War.
The journey to Italy was very dangerous,this story of this trip is told in the Aeneid. When he went to Italy he found a lot of person living there. He make alliance with the people that lived in Italy, and people called the Latins. After defeating these opponents, Aeneas Fell in Love with the daughter of the Latins King. Aeneas family became prominents rulers in Italy. Among the descendants of Aeneas were the founder of Rome.
According to a legend that the roman told, this founders were wins brother named Romulus and Remus. In the story this brother were put in a basket when they were babies and thrown into the Tiber River. They didn’t die because a wolf rescued them. The wolf was like a mother for them, but after many years a shepherd found the boys and adopted them. After they group up, Romulus and Remus decided to built a city to remember the spot where the wolf rescued them. When they were planning the city, Romulus had an idea but Remus didn’t like it and Remus made fun of him. Remulus was very angry so, he killed his brother.
Remulus built the city and named it Rome. The government the Romans created in 509 BC was a republic. In a republic,people elect leaders to govern them. Every years the Roman elect a official to be the ruler if the city . The officials had many powers, but they can only used for one year. This system was supposed to keep any person that want to be powerful not to be.
But Rome was not a democracy, they elect men that are powerful and wealthy. During a particular and difficult wars, the Roman chose dictators ruler with almost absolute power to lead the city. To keep them safe from abusing power the dictator only can stay with power, six month. When time was over they need to gave up his power.One Rome famous dictator was Cincinnatus, who became dictator in 458 BC . He was a Farmer, the roman chose him to defend the Roman Army.
After he defeated the city, he resigned as dictator and he went to his home and work as a farmer. When Cincinnatus won he didn’t end Rome problems. They continue the fight for many years.Roman society was divided two groups the plebeians or common people, and the nobles called Patricians.
Only the patricians could be elected to office, so they held all political power. The plebeians were worker persons, trader, crafts… A lot of the plebeians were rich as the patricians. In 494 BC they make an election to select their own official.The first part of rome was elected by the official or magistrates.
The most powerful magistrates were called the consuls. The consuls were elected every year to rule the city and the army. There were two consuls so that no one would be most powerful.The second part of Rome was the Senate. The Roman Senate was a council of wealthy and powerful Romans that advised the city’s leaders. After the king were gone, the Senate continued to meet advised the city’s leader. When the Senate had 300 members.
The first members were Patrician but the time pass so the plebeians were members to.The second branch was made by a group called the Tribunes, elect by the plebeians the Tribunes had an ability called ”veto” or prohibit in latin the word veto means ”I forbid”. Latin was the Romans language.Checks and balance take care from that the king or emperors becoming stronger.
The check and balance make the Rome very complicated.Rome’s officials were responsible if people do not follow the laws. The only people that follow the laws were the patricians. Many people were not happy with the laws. The first code of laws was created in 450 BC on twelve bronze tables, or tablets. This tablets were first show in the Forum, Rome’s public meeting place.
A lot of activities took place in the Forum like; speeches, shop lined the open square…In about 387 BC a people called the Gauls attacked Rome and took over the city. The Roman had to give to the Gauls a lot amount of gold to leave the city. One reason for the Roman success was the organized os the army. The soldiers were organized in legion or group of 6,000 soldiers. Each legion was divided into centuries of 100 groups.The fiercest of the wars rome fought were the Punic Wars against Carthage, a city in northern Africa.
The world Punic means ”Phoenician” in latin. Rome and Carthage went 3 time to the same war between 264 and 146 BC .In 218 BC Carthage tried to attack Rome by Hannibal a brilliant general. But Hannibal fail the mission because the Roman send an army. By 140s Bc many people alarmed the Carthage was very powerful again, so Carthage send soldiers to Rome but one again Rome send an army to Africa and destroyed Carthage.Some tried to stop the chaos in Rome’s government.
One person that want to stop that was Cicero, a philosopher and gifted orators. In the speech of Cicero called on upper class Romans to work together to make Rome a better place. A lot of person didn’t like the ideas of Cicero and one of them was Julius Caesar a general. Caesar was a great general.
His soldiers respect him because he respect them. Between 58 BC and 50 BC Caesar conquered nearly all of Gaul. After Caesar assassination , Marc Antony ex assistant of Caesar, took his place and the other one was Augustus adopted son of Caesar. Stable government and a well run army helped Rome grow wealthy in safety. There were no major wars in the empire. We called this peaceful period the Pax Romana. It lasted until the AD 180s.
The Romans also used arches in their aqueducts. An aqueduct is a raised channel used to carry water from mountains into cities. Latin later developed into many different languages, these languages were called Romance Language, they include Italian,French,Spanish,Portuguese,and Romanian. Over time, Romans law inspired a system called civil law. Civil law is a legal system based on a written code of law.At the beginning of the first century AD, what would become a new religion appeared in Judea. Called Christianity, this religion was based on the life and teaching of Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus of Nazareth, the man christians believe was the Jewish Messiah,lived at the very beginning of the first century AD.
Messiah means ‘God’s anointed one’. Shortly after his arrest, Jesus was Executed. He was killed by crucifixion in which a person was nailed to a cross. According to christians beliefs, Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after he was crucified.
Christians refer to Jesus;s rises from the dead as the Resurrection. The apostles were 12 disciples whom Jesus chose to receive special training. Diocletian became emperor in the 200s. Convinced that the empire was very big for one person to rule, Diocletian ruled the eastern half and named a co-emperor to rule the west. The gothics victory inspired other groups of foreign warriors to invade the western half of the empire. The vandals, Angles, Saxons,Jutes and Franks all launched attacks.
The huns, under a fearsome leader named Attila, roman teritorry in the est. Political crised also contribute to the decline. By 400s corruption, the decay of people’s values. The eastern emperors dreamed of Rome.
For Justinian an emperor who ruled from 527 to 565 reuniting the old Roman Empire was a passion. Historians call the society the take place in the Eastern Roman Empire the Byzantine empire.