6S hierarchy of pre-appraised evidence
Model developed to assist clinicians in their search for the highest level of evidence. The main use of this is for efficiently identifying the highest level of evidence to facilitate a search on a clinical question or problem
Words used to define the relationships between words or groups of words in literature searches. Examples of Boolean operators are words such as AND, OR, NOT, and NEAR
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citation management software
Software that formats citations
The terms that indexers have assigned to the articles in a database.
When possible, it is helpful to match the words that you use in your search to those specifically used in the database
A database that can be accessed by comptuters or electronic information services
A systematic and critical appraisal of the most important literature on a topic
Scholarly literature that is written by the person(s) who developed the theory or conducted the research. Include eyewitness accounts of historic events, provided by original documents, films, letters, diaries, records, artifacts, periodicals, or audio/video recordings
Useful for finding sources that have not been entered into online databases. Now referred to as CINAHL
Rereed/peer reviewed journals
A scholarly journal that has a panel of external and internal reviewers or editors; the panel reviews submitted manuscripts for possible publication. The review panels use the same set of scholarly criteria to judge if the manuscripts are worthy of publication
Scholarly material written by a person(s) other than the dinividual who developed the theory or conducted the research. Most are usually published. Often a secondary source represents a response to or a summary and critique of a theorist’s or researcher’s work. Examples are documents, films, letters, diaries, records, artifacts, periodicals, or tapes that provide a view of the phenomenon from another’s perspective
Software program used to connect or read the world wide web
What does scholarly literature include? (Select all that apply.
)o Research reports reported in primary sources only o Conceptual and theoretical literature from primary sources only o Published and unpublished reports of research o Primary and secondary sources
o Published and unpublished reports of research o Primary and secondary sourcesPublished and unpublished reports of research are both sources of scholarly literature. Primary and secondary sources are both sources of scholarly literature.
Similarities between literature reviews conducted for research purposes and literature reviews conducted for research consumers include what? (Select all that apply.)o Amount of literature required to be reviewed o Degree of critical reading required o Importance of conceptual literature o Purpose of the review
o Degree of critical reading required o Importance of conceptual literature Reviews conducted for either purpose require a great deal of critical reading. In both instances (reviewing the literature for consumer purposes and reviewing the literature for research purposes), the conceptual literature is an important part of the review. The amount of literature reviewed for consumer purposes is usually less than the amount reviewed for research purposes.
Reviews of the literature are conducted slightly differently, depending on the purpose of the review.
Characteristics of the literature review required for a quantitative research study include what? (Select all that apply.)o The review is exhaustive and must include all studies conducted in the area. o Doctoral dissertations and masters’ theses are preferred sources of information. o Computer-accessed materials are acceptable o Primary sources are not as important as secondary sources.
o Doctoral dissertations and masters’ theses are preferred sources of information. o Computer-accessed materials are acceptable Doctoral dissertations and masters’ theses are excellent sources of information. Computer-accessed materials are acceptable.
The review is broad and systematic, as well as in-depth, but not usually exhaustive. Primary sources are more important than secondary sources.
A nurse researcher chooses to use a secondary source in a research study. What is an example of such a source?o A chapter in a book critiquing research conducted on visual impairment in diabeticso The North Dakota Nurse Practice Act, describing that state’s scope of practice for nurses o A doctoral dissertation that studied depression in adolescents o A published research report from 10 years ago, written by the original researcher
o A chapter in a book critiquing research conducted on visual impairment in diabeticsBecause the chapter critiques a research study and is not an original research study, it is a secondary source of that study. The original source for the scope of practice for nurses in North Dakota is their Nurse Practice Act. A doctoral dissertation is an original source of work. The report is the primary source of the study, regardless of the age of the study.
A nurse researcher chooses a primary source in a research study. What is an example of such a source?o A published commentary on the findings of another study o A doctoral dissertation that critiques all research on attention deficit disorder o A textbook of medical-surgical nursing o A journal article about research using large, previously unpublished databases generated by the U.S. census
o A journal article about research using large, previously unpublished databases generated by the U.S. census A journal article about research using large, previously unpublished databases generated by the U.S.
census is a report of an original study, so it is the primary source of the study. A commentary is not the original source of the work. A doctoral dissertation that critiques all research on attention deficit disorder is a review of studies and not the primary source of those studies. A textbook is not an original source of information.
What is the best source for a nurse researcher to use when conducting a level I systematic meta-analysis of the literature?o An electronic database o The Cochrane Statistical Methods Group o A doctoral dissertation o MEDLINE
o The Cochrane Statistical Methods Group Rigorous systematic reviews have already been conducted by the Cochrane Group in many areas. Because a systematic review is different than other types of literature reviews and must adhere to a strict scientific design, an electronic database may not be the most efficient tool to use. A systematic review is a meta-review of all relevant primary or original studies to provide the best available objective evidence on a topic. Although doctoral dissertations are included in such a review, this is not the best answer.
What is the most effective use of a print index for a nurse researcher?o To determine the keywords to use in an electronic search o To provide the latest unpublished research o To show sources that may not have been entered into an electronic database o To provide lists of secondary resources
o To show sources that may not have been entered into an electronic database Sources that have not been entered into an electronic database may be located using the older print indexes. Keywords can be found electronically. Print indexes are not the best source of unpublished materials. Print indexes do not list secondary sources.
What is the most efficient tool to use for scholarly literature searches?o Web browsers o Online journalso Search engines o Government Web sites
o Online journalsOnline journals retrieve complete articles quickly and easily and allow the reviewer to quickly determine the relevancy of the article to the purpose of the review. “Surfing” the Web is not a good use of time for scholarly literature searches. There are more efficient online sources of information.
Government Web sites typically are not primary sources of database reports.
A nurse researcher is outlining a premise for an evidence-based project. She or he should plan to research how many years in the literature for this project?o 3 years is sufficient.
o 5 years is preferred.o 7 years is expected. o All literature is to be included.
o 5 years is preferred.Typically, it is preferable to review the most recent 5 years of literature. Research conducted more than 3 years ago is likely to be relevant currently. There is no expectation of a search as far back as 7 years unless it is indicated by the subject of the review. A review of the literature is rarely exhaustive in nature.
A student conducting an electronic search of the literature is simultaneously using two databases, CINAHL and MEDLINE, which generate more than 2000 citations.
What does this indicate?o There has been a great deal of research in this area. o CINAHL and MEDLINE duplicate the literature. o The keywords were not sufficiently narrow. o A third database is necessary to limit the search.
o The keywords were not sufficiently narrow.The student should review the keywords used and narrow the search. Although there may have been a great deal of research in the area, it is more likely that a response of this magnitude is a result of something else. CINAHL and MEDLINE can be used concurrently for literature searches without fear of duplication of information.
A third database may help limit the search, but this is not the best solution.
A student finds most of the articles retrieved during an electronic search of the literature are not useful. What is the best next step?o Use articles obtained because little research was conducted in the area. o Change the keywords and do another search. o Change the study and focus of the literature review. o Use a print index to retrieve older documents.
o Change the keywords and do another search.
The student most likely did not use the keywords most appropriate for retrieval of relevant information. The problem does not lie with the focus of the study. A print index will not likely solve the problem. Although it is possible that there has been little research conducted in the area, another answer is more likely.
Once data has been collected, a literature review should be conducted at what point?o When the researcher cannot formulate a research question o When a qualitative research design was used o When there were no significant findings o When too many subjects dropped out of the study
o When a qualitative research design was used A literature review may follow data collection when little is known about the topic under study or when it is logical to do so in a qualitative study. Data collection cannot proceed without a research question.
Because research questions must flow from the literature review and data collection is guided by research questions, significance of findings does not precipitate literature reviews. There is no logical relationship between a literature review and sampling difficulties.
A nurse researcher is beginning a computer search in a research study. What should the nurse do?o Use at least two recognized electronic databases.
o Start with scholarly nonresearch literature. o Read only abstracts from primary sources. o Use the fewest keywords possible.
o Use at least two recognized electronic databases. Using at least two electronic health-related databases such as CINAHL and MEDLINE is recommended. There is no reason to limit the initial search to nonresearch literature. Although skimming abstracts may be a quick way to eliminate studies that are irrelevant, there is no reason to limit the initial search to abstracts or primary sources. Any number of keywords may be used to obtain materials relevant to the study.
The nurse researcher has consulted a Web site that supports the library supported by Sigma Theta Tau international Honor Society of Nursing. The nurse has been using what?o National Guideline Clearinghouse o Joanna Briggs Institute o Virginia Henderson International Nursing Library o Cochrane Collaboration
o Virginia Henderson International Nursing Library The Virginia Henderson International Nursing Library is an international not-for-profit, membership-based research and development organization. The National Guideline Clearinghouse offers a useful online feature of side-by-side comparison of guidelines and the ability to browse by disease/condition and treatment/intervention. The Joanna Briggs Institute is an international not-for-profit, membership-based research and development organization. The Cochrane Collaboration provides access to abstracts from Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
What is the first step in the qualitative research process?o Data analysis o Sample o Review of the literature o Study design
o Review of the literature A review of the literature is the first step in the qualitative research process. Data analysis is the sixth step in the qualitative research process. Sampling is the third step in the qualitative research process.
The study design is the second step in the qualitative research process.
The nurse is using an electronic database sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education.
The nurse is most likely using which database?o ERIC o MEDLINE o EMBASE o CINAHL
o ERICERIC is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education. MEDLINE is produced by the National Library of Medicine. EMBASE indexes an additional 5 million records not covered on MEDLINE.
CINAHL is available as part of the EBSCO online service.
The nurse is using CINAHL as an electronic database. What is an effective technique to use with this database?o Use complete sentences when using Advanced Search o Mark “Research Articles,” and then select “Search” o Use the Boolean connector “and” to broaden your search o Use the Limit Your Results section to limit results by age group
o Use the Limit Your Results section to limit results by age groupUsing the Limit Your Results section can help limit results by age group, year, or clinical queries, for example. Do not use complete sentences when using the Advanced Search feature. Select “Search” and then “Research articles” to ensure that you retrieve only articles that are actually research. Using the Boolean connector “and” will narrow your search.
The nurse researcher is trying to determine which Boolean operator should be used to combine synonyms for a concept during the literature search. What is the most effective operator to use in this case?o And o Not o Or o And not
o OrUsing “or” in this case is the only choice that will allow the combining of synonyms for a concept during a literature search electronically. Using “and” in this case will not allow the combining of synonyms for a concept. Using “not” in this case will not allow the combining of synonyms for a concept. Using “and not” in this case will not allow the combining of synonyms for a concept.