Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Jasmine Carter
Last updated: August 16, 2019
Educationalglobalisation aims to interconnectmany different countries; by contributing advanced knowledge and solutions foreducational limitations regarding policy and systematic issues. However, it is inevitableto discuss severe matters, such as mental well-being in education; a sectorthat is mostly disregarded in educational globalisation topics and still continuingto impact students to reach their full potential in academia. United Kingdom,for example, scored the 21st place in PISA (OECD PISA, 2000), facesproblems, such as student suicidal rates which has increased by 210% from 2016 (BBC,2015). Compared to this, South Korea, scored 6th in PISA (OECD PISA,2000), “40 students are committing suicide every day” (Lee, 2010). There is a significantdifference in PISA results for both countries; yet the death rates arepractically similar and continuously developing. It is essential to analyse bothcountries’ educational policy and system; to acknowledge the limitations and providean advanced solution for the future.
Firstly, the United Kingdom of Great Britain andNorthern Ireland, also known as UK orBritain, is situated in thenorth-western coast of Europe with a population of over 67 million people (TheWorld Bank, 2017). United Kingdom consists of four different countries;England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, all applying different scholarlyrules for each of their education systems. According to Unterhalter (2014), England’seducation policy gives a specific emphasis on equality, diversity andinclusion; all students are eligible to attend free education until 16 years ofage. All students in England are eligible to start their first years ofschooling before the age of five. The national curriculum for England is organised intotwo main aspects; Key Stage 1 covering the first years of pre-school and KeyStage 2 which is covered during Years 3 to 6.
Throughout Key Stage 1 and 2,students are assessed and required to study three main topics, which areEnglish, maths and science and as they progress and develop throughout theyears, students are obligated to also study topics, such as art and design,computing, design technology, geography, history, music and physical education(DfE, 2017). Academic levels for individual students are assessed through KeyStage 1 and 2 SAT exams from Years 3 to 6 and this leads onto choosing their ownsecondary school years in different secondary schools (DfE, 2017). On thecontrary, there is a significant difference in South Korea’s education systemcompared to the UK. South Korea, also known as the Republic of Korea, is situated in East Asia with over 25 millionresidents living in the capital city, Seoul (Kweon, 2014). That escalates toalmost half of England’s population situated amongst South Korea’s capitalcity.
Out of the 25 million residents, 5 million residents are students wholive in Seoul, which also means that the population is hardly dispersed tocountry sides and urban areas. Unlike England with a vast range of diversityand dispersal across the land, the educational policy for South Korea does notemphasise strongly on diversity, equality or inclusion. Khang (2012) stressesthat “the government has activity promoted English proficiency as an indispensabletool in ascertaining competitiveness or individuals and the country”. This statementsuggests that, Koreans emphasise more on promoting competitions in schools,rather than co-operation skills and rather than advertising inclusion for lessadvanced pupils, the country is better known to develop students who are giftedin predominant subjects (Khang, 2012). InEngland, students are eligible to attend free education before the ages of 5,up until the ages of 16.
However in Korea, education is paid for and themajority of working class parents will send their children to school from theages of 0 years (2 months +) onwards (Park, 2006). All educationalinstitutions, including private schools in South Korea follow the same nationalcurriculum. Students start primary school from ages of 6 ranging to 12, withconstant monthly assessments and mock exams to develop their learning (Park,2006). Unlike the Key Stage procedures in England, Korean children are intendedto develop through grades; grades 1 to 2 focusing on main topics such as,Korean and mathematics and focuses more on personal development through topics,such as a ‘disciplined life’ or an ‘enjoyable life’ during pre-school (Park, 2006).However, once a student reaches Grades 3 to 6, the topic become more intense,similar to England’s national curriculum topics. Students in Grade 3 begin tostudy Korean, English, science, maths, moral education, social studies, art,music, practical arts and physical education, with on-going exams that preparesthem for secondary education (Park, 2006).
There aresignificant psychological differences that impact student’s well-being inEngland compared to South Korea. Students in England compare their academicresults to themselves; comparing their previous results to observe the leveland extent of improvement compared to the past. However, South Korean studentsare embedded with the idea of a ‘competitivesociety’; comparing their results to other people in class (Park, 2006). Thegrades in Korea are given out by reading the name of the person with thehighest grade in class, and then later bulleted on walls for everyone else,including senior years to see. This triggers students to ignore the self fulfillingprophecy; instead they are reprimanded by teachers and parents to do greaterthan other students (Lee, 2010). Comparedto this authoritative system in South Korea, the students in England do not feelthe same academic pressure from their own results (Lee, 2010).
However,statistics prove that mental dissatisfaction and student suicidal rates still triggerswithin the UK, which impacts the entire education system. According to thegeneral statistics shown for mental health in OECD countries, England is the 5thhighest in student satisfaction within education (OECD, 2014). Also, the statisticsfor the most employable graduates of the world, England takes the 3rd place afterUS being 1st statistic results (UNESCO, 2016). These statistics demonstratesthat the students who live in England are highly satisfied with the existingeducation system and will face less pressure, compared to other countriesregarding employability. However,according to BBC (2015), the average of three pupils in every classroom facemental issues that impact their health and well-being in education. This leadsonto the inevitable purpose for professionals to discuss why these resultscontradict with previous results portrayed in OECD charts. Student suicidalrates in England have increased by 33%, with almost 150 pupils committingsuicide from online scams and dating fraud (BBC, 2015). It is inevitable todiscuss teenage suicidal rates occur through media, genuinely distinct reasons inrelation to academic issues.
However, this still yet impacts the educationsystem in England as a whole and professionals who work within the educationalfield should consider these critical issues that impact individual students. Thereare studies to investigate the impact of student suicide and mental dissatisfaction,which distresses and impacts teachers who felt that they needed more support inhandling these critical situations within education (Unterhalter, 2014). Infact, student’s mental health impacts the whole education system in England, asthis causes high levels of distress amongst teachers and parents (BBC, 2015). Studentsuicidal issues related with media should be considered in a higher extent, asthis will impact the school, then the community and leading to impacting theeducation system in England as a whole. Nevertheless,in South Korea as mentioned before, students are more aware of other student’sresults then their own, due to the fact that they live in a ‘competitive society’ (Lee, 2010).
Students in England will attend 8 hours of regular class hours, possiblyattending extracurricular activities but will be insured to have at least 8hours of sleep, when they are following the correct educational policy andprocedures (DfE, 2017). However, South Korean students attend school in averageof 13 hours, also attending extracurricular classes and are estimated to have 4hours of average sleep every day (Mckay, 2017). Parental issues in Korea alsohave a direct impact in mental satisfaction for the students in South Korea.Students who are gifted in authentic subjects will attend arts schools, whichare frowned upon by the society, causing labeling and otherness from their veryown parents and related family members (Mckay, 2017). Korean students areexpected to achieve much higher than their expectations and will be pressured againsttheir own will, as South Korea’s employability is 20%, rated 5thlowest across the world (UNESCO, 2016). Therefore,South Korea is ranked 6th highest in reading and writing across theworld (TIMSS and PIRLS, 2015) and United States (ranked 16th) hasalso stated “that education system can’t compete withthe rest of the world” (Mckay,2017). Not only the parents, but the community and even the whole countryitself has neglected self value and health care issues against keeping theirmain focus on keep their place ranked as a country.
The mental dissatisfactionand the lack of health care are still to be processed and advanced ineducational policies since the 80s (Lee, 2010). The educational policy in SouthKorea currently focuses on keeping their place and neglects the critical issueof how this issue impacts the education system. Professor Park from Yeon Sei University,recommended training programmes for residential families and elaborated thatfocus should be on promoting the end of mental health and hearing the voice ofsuffering students in mental illness (Mckay, 2017). However, Professor Park andthe majority of the Korean community agreed to the fact that no improvementwill be made in the near future. Overall, Englandand South Korea both face critical issues of high suicidal rates by studentswho are dissatisfied with their personal lives which significantly impacts theeducation system.
However, both countries have severe differences in policywhich should be considered by the world’s leading educational professionalsthat should create a new legislation that could benefit all countries and saveindividual student’s lives. South Korea, a democratic country is formed oflegislations which were made by the countries very own citizens, rather thangovernment decisions or political choices (Park, 2006). Park also argues that, thecountries legislation and policy is correlated personally by the people ofSouth Korea, they should consider and discuss the critical matters by prioritizingissues regarding education. Thisstatement clearly suggests that, the majority of adults in South Korea,including all parents are more interested in improving their child’s academicresults, than putting a focus on other issues such as mental health, which hasdelayed this legislation process for years. On theother hand, England’s mental services are beyond compatible, as for the countrybeing a part of the National Institute of Health (NIH) who provides a comprehensivestudy for mental health services all around the regions of England (BBC, 2015).England has emphasized the importance of investment for research programmesregarding mental health; however still fails to indicate the actual reasons behindstudent dissatisfaction and expresses a reluctant manner to promote this issue usingthe media approach. In comparison to this, South Korea has remained the highestin student suicidal rates for 10 years in OECD and “29.
1 people out of 100,000 arecommitting suicide” (Mckay, 2017). Nevertheless, the people in South Korea arewell aware of these problematic issues and the main cause however is reluctant tosupply any financial budget for research programmes and promoting services (Mckay,2017). Inconclusion, the mental health analysis for both countries has expressed the significantuse of advanced and comparative educational globalisation.
Analysing such comparisons,have clearly shown that the results portrayed in PISA charts, may cover hidden issueswithin a countries education system and the significant duty for practitioners toencounter all these issues to produce a better learning environment for all students.Deeper analysis and research should formulate better and advanced solutions, particularlyin the areas of mental health and this matter should promote critical issues andlead onto providing a better education system all around the world.