is the specially designed instruction provided by the school district or tother local education agency that meets the unique needs of students identified as diabled according to federal and state eligiblity criteria.
assistance required to enable students to benefit from special education. Examples are speech/language therapy, transportation to and from school in and from school
least restrictive environment LRE
a provision in the federal laws that have governed special education for more than three decades.
involves placing students with disabilities in general education settings only when they can meet traditional academic expectations with minimal assistance or when those expectations are not relevant
is founded on the belief or philosophy that students with disabilities should be fully integrated into their school learning communities
Placing students in the same classroom as nondisabled peers should be a strong priority, and removing them from that setting should be done only when absolutely necessary.
Relationships should be nurtured between students with disabilities and their classmates and peers as well as adults.
Most students should be taught in the same curriculum used for students without disabilities and helped to succeed by adjusting how teaching and learning are dsinged and measured.
Board of Education
In 1954, the U.S. SUpreme Court ruled that it was unlawful under the 14th amendment to discriminate arbitrarily
PRevents discrimination against all individuals with disabilities
Americans with Disabilities Act
The civil rights law was based on the Rehabilitiation act of 1973, but it further extended the right of individuals with Council on DIsability 2006
The First Federal Special Education Legislation
In 1975 Congress passed Public Law P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children ACT ENCH, thereby setting federal guidelines for special education and laying the foundation on which current special edcuation pactice rests.
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It took into account many of the early court decisions that established the civil rights of students with disabilities.
IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement act
This legislation mandated yet further refinement in special eucation. For example, this legislation streamlined some procedures and paperwork, and it also specified that all students with disabilities must participate in all assessment conducted by local school districts.
Highly Qualified teachers
special education teachers must be able to teacher core academic content to students with disabilities
Time for shared planning
General and special education teachers note that they need time to meet so they can design instructional strategies and discuss student learning and behavior.
Adequate and consistent personnel
Because inclusive schooling relies so heavily on the strong collaborative relationships among schoool staff members, in schools where teacher turnover is high, it is difficult to sustain efforts to support students with disabilities in general eucation classrooms
Pressure related to high-stakes testing
NCLB has resulted in tremendous pressure for all students to reach achievement goals. IN some schools, teachers fear that having students with disabilities in tier classes may lower their scores