Anatomy & Physiology ————————————————- Determine Blood Group Using Eldon Card ————————————————- The Experiment Zlata Jasevits Nursing Studies ‘A’ 2nd February 2009 Contents Introduction3 Blood Structure3 Blood Group Systems4 ABO system:4 Rhesus System:5 Blood Transfusion6 ABO Alleles and Genetic Inheritance Patterns6 The Experiment7 Purpose:7 Materials used:7 Methodology:7 Observations and Results:8 Conclusion:10 Reference11 Determine Blood Group using Eldon Card Introduction
In this assignment I am going to identify the blood’s structure, make enquiries about blood transfusion, the classifications of blood groups and its compatibility. I also review ABO alleles and genetic inheritance patterns. My main objective is to determine the blood group using the Eldon Card and analyze the experiment. ‘An average adult has between 10 and 12 pints of blood. 7% of a person’s body weight is made up of blood. Human blood travels 60,000 miles per day on its journey through the arteries, arterioles and capillaries and back through the venules and veins Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body.
Blood carries carbon dioxide and other waste products back to the lungs, kidneys and liver for disposal. There are about 1 billion red cells in two to three drops of blood’ [http://www. giveblood. ie] Blood Structure Blood is a fluid connective tissue which contains 55% of plasma and 45% of blood cells. Plasma is straw-coloured slightly thick liquid made up mostly of water (90%-92%) and proteins (albumin, globulin, fibrinogen and prothrombin). It transports mineral salts, nutrients, waste, hormones, enzymes, gases and antibodies.
Blood cells brake up into three types: erythrocytes (red blood cells), leucocytes (white blood cells) and thrombocytes (platelets). [Tucker, L. ] Blood Group Systems The transfer of blood from one person to another began to be practiced during the 17th century; however, it involved serious risks and sometimes meant death to patients. In 1902, an Austrian Physician named Karl Landsteiner began studying why some patients died as a result of blood transfusions. Landsteiner discovered that there are four different blood types: O, A, B, AB.
There are eight blood groups and they are classified using two systems. * ABO system * Rhesus System ABO system: The first system called the ABO system has four main groups: * Group * A Group * B Group * AB Group Antigens are found on the red blood cells. Group A has the A antigen and if it is exposed to B antigen, it will recognize it as foreign and can therefore produce anti-B antibodies. Likewise, group B has the B antigen and if it is exposed to A antigen, it will recognize it as foreign and can therefore produce anti-A antibodies. A” blood must never be given to a group “B” person and vice versa. Group AB has both the A antigen and the B antigen, so this group makes no antibodies and individuals with this blood group can receive blood from any other groups. Group O has neither A nor B antigen. Therefore, it will not be rejected when it is given to any other group. As a result, group O donors are known as ‘universal donors’, but they can receive only group O blood themselves, as group O produces both anti-A and anti-B antibodies if exposed to these antigens. [http://www. iveblood. ie] Rhesus System: Second important blood group system in transfusion is the Rhesus System and is classified as Rhesus Positive (+) and Rhesus Negative (-). Rhesus depends on D antigen presence in the blood. In Ireland, 63% of people have the D antigen on their red blood cells and are rhesus positive. The remaining 37% don’t have the D antigen and are rhesus negative. The blood group is defined by the ABO group together with the rhesus group. For instance, someone who is group A and rhesus negative is known as A negative.
The two systems combine to define the following eight different blood groups of O-, O+, A-, A+, B-, B+, AB- and AB+. The table below demonstrates blood type compatibility. In Ireland blood group “O” positive is the most common group and AB negative is the least common. The last column in this table indicates the percentage of people with particular blood type. Blood Group Compatibility Blood Group| Gives to these groups| Receives from these groups| Percentage| O-| All| O- only| 47| O+| AB+, A+, B+, O+| O- and O+| 26| A-| AB-, AB+, A+, A-| O- and A-| 9|
A+| AB+ and A+| O-, O+, A-, A+| 8| B-| B-, B+, AB-, AB+| O- and B-| 5| B+| B+ and AB+| O-, O+, B-, B+| 2| AB-| AB- and AB+| O-, A-, B-, AB-| 2| AB+| AB+ only| All| 1| [http://www. blood. co. uk/] Blood Transfusion One out of four people will need blood transfusion some day in their life, and over 1000 people receive blood transfusion in Ireland weekly. The process of blood donating takes about 8-15 minutes and 450 ml of blood taken from the donor each time. It is important that the person will receive the right blood group.
If the blood group introduced is incorrect, depending on the amount of blood received by a person, it can seriously damage the health of the person or even cause death. ABO Alleles and Genetic Inheritance Patterns ABO blood groups are determined by three alleles denoted IA, IB, IO. The IA and IB alleles are co-dominant. IO allele is recessive to both IA and IB. Father| Mother| AllelesGenotypeIA + IAIA + IOIA + IBIB + IBIB + IOIO + IO| Blood typePhenotype= A= A= AB= B= B= O| | A| B| O| | | A| AA| AB| AO| | | B| BA| BB| BO| | | O| OA| OB| OO| | |
If both parents have group A, then the child will have group A. If one of the parents has group A and the other has B, then the child will have group AB as these alleles are co-dominant. If both parents have O, the child will have group O. If one parent has B and the other has O, the child will have B because B allele is dominant. [D. L. Hartl, E. W. Jones] The Experiment Purpose: I am going to determine my blood group using Eldon Card. Materials used: * Eldon Card, * Water * Pipette * Lancet * Eldon Sticks * Adhesive Foil Methodology: Following steps will be performed: 1.
I will place one drop of water in each field with a pipette. 2. I will disinfect a finger. After the finger is dry I will make a small puncture using a lancet. 3. I will collect one drop of blood for each field on an Eldon stick. I will use a new stick for each field. 4. I will make sure that the blood fits the base of the stick. 5. I will place the blood drops into the fields of the Eldon Card and keep the stick in contact with the card. 6. I will spread the mixture to the perimeter of the circles by mixing the blood with a rotating movement for approximately 15 seconds. . I will tilt the Eldon Card to a vertical position and rotate it every 10 seconds at different angles to make sure that the blood travels across and fills the field. I will read and record the result. 8. Cover the agglutinations with adhesive foil to prevent deterioration of reactions and to seal possible infectious material. [www. eldoncard. com] Observations and Results: I completed the Experiment as it was described in the previous section and as a result discovered that my blood group type is ‘A’ and the Rhesus Factor is ‘Positive’.
Also, I filled in the Eldon Card as required as you can see in the image on the right. I have read the result following the table below: First circle (ANTI-A) indicates if the A antigen is present in the blood. If the blood in this circle forms clots, it means that the A antigen is present. Second circle (ANTI-B) indicates if the B antigen is present in the blood. If the blood in this circle forms clots, it means that the B antigen is present. Third circle (ANTI-D) indicates if the D antigen is present in the blood.
If the blood in this circle forms clots, it means that the D antigen is present. Control circle indicates if the procedure was done correctly and/or the card was not faulty. If the blood in this circle forms clots, it means that the result incorrect. After investigation I collected results from other students in my class and developed the balance chart below which demonstrates the percentage of people with particular blood type within the Nursing Studies Group ‘A’ and Republic of Ireland. Also I requested the blood types from my parents in order to evaluate the inheritance pattern.
My mother has a blood group A and my father has a blood group O, therefore A allele is dominant to O allele and in the result I inherited the blood group A. Farther O| Mother| | A| | OA| Alleles Genotype IA + IO | Blood type Phenotype= A| Conclusion: Based on the information and the conclusions as presented above, determining right blood group of any person is vital, given possibilities of injuries and need to address them in a manner that is most efficient and life-saving. Failure to determine the right blood group will more often than not cause a fatal outcome.
Hereby, as described by this research, determining blood group is a straightforward procedure that can be performed without medical personnel’s assistance. Although the purpose of the paper is educational, its bottom line is that, when at times minutes are all there is that separates life from death, it is high-risk negligence to rely on others to determine the blood group when emergency strikes. By using the Eldon Card, one can save life already now. Reference Tucker, L. (2008) (3rd Edit. ) An Introductory Guide to Anatomy ; Physiology, London: EMS Publishing. Lindsten, J. 1999), 1930 Karl Landsteiner, Nobel Lecturers in Psychology or Medicine (1922-1941), pgs 227-246, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. Blood Group Basics, Irish Blood Transfusion Service, available http://www. giveblood. ie/All_About_Blood/Blood_Group_Basics/ [accessed on 12/12/2009] D. L. Hartl, E. W. Jones, (2005) (6th Ed. )Genetics: analysis of genes and genomes, Canada: Jones ; Bartlet Publishers. Blood Group Basics, The National Blood Service, available http://www. blood. co. uk/about-blood/blood-group-basics/ [accessed on 12/12/2009] http://www. eldoncard. com/ [accessed on 14/12/09]