Elements of Poetry Style

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Last updated: December 1, 2019

Poetry Style
Figures of speech, grammar, sentences/phrases, rhythm.

Poetry Structure
Stanzas, lines, margins, lengths.

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Poetry Content
Topics can be anything.

Three misconceptions about poetry:
-It must rhyme-It’s always beautiful-It always conveys a theme.

Narrative Poems:
A long story told in verse form.Ex.

an epic

Lyrical Poems:
Brief, personal poems that that use sound devices as well as rhythm and meter, and is filled with emotion; sonnets, odes, and elegies are types of lyrics.

Ballad Poems:
A type of poem that is actually meant to be sung and is both lyric and narrative in nature.

Simile
Two dissimilar things that are compared using words such as “like,” “than,” “as,” or “resembles.

Metaphor
Makes a comparison between two unlike things.

Direct Metaphor
The literal term and the figurative term are both named.

Implied Metaphor
the literal term is named and the figurative term is implied.

Extended Metaphor
a metaphor- direct or implied- that is developed over more than one line of poetry.

Personification
giving human or animate qualities to an animal, an object, or a concept.

Apostrophe
Addressing someone absent or dead or something nonhuman as if it were alive and present and could reply.

Literary Allusion
A reference to a person, place, or thing from previous literature.

Three most common sources for literary allusions:
-The Bible-Greek and Roman mythology-Shakespeare’s works

Hyperbole
Using exaggeration for emphasis; overstatement.

Litotes
A special form of understatement, it affirms something by negating the opposite.

Irony
States one thing when in fact the opposite thing is intended.

Antithesis
A strong contrast of words, clauses, sentences, or ideas that shows opposing ideas through opposing grammatical structures.

Synecdoche
Using a part of something to represent the whole thing.

Metonymy
A substitution of one word for another closely associated word.

Paradox
A statement that although seemingly contradictory or absurd may actually be well-founded or true. (Similar to an oxymoron)

Symbol
Something (object, person, situation, or action) that means more than what it is.

Alliteration
The repetition at close intervals of the initial consonant sounds of certain words.

Consonance
The repetition of close intervals of middle or end consonant sounds of certain words.

Assonance
The similarity and repetition of vowel sounds of certain words at close intervals.

Onomatopoeia
The use of words that mimic their meaning in their sound.

Ex: Boom, buzz, pop, click.

Repetition
Repeating a word or a phrase within a poem in order to…

1. Make it easier to remember2. Emphasize an important idea3. Give the poem structural unity.

Parallelism
The repetition of the structure of a two or more lines in a poem

Cataloging
The list of words, images, or attributes.

Refrain
The repetition of a word or phrase or line(s) at definite intervals in a poem.

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