Type: Research Essays
Sample donated: Elaine Gibson
Last updated: August 24, 2019
Ellemberg and St- Louise-Deschenes,2010, found that children who were given cognitive tests immediately after 30minutes of aerobic physical activity outperformed children who watchedtelevision for the same amount of time.
This may be because physical activityenhances memory and attention, as well as reduces anxiety, which all have beenshown to impact test performance (Ellemberg and St-Louis-Deschênes, 2010). Castelli et al. (2007) assessed the cross-sectionalassociation between CV fitness (Fitness- gram–PACER) and academic achievement(Illinois State Achievement Test) in 259, 3rd through 5th grade students. Therewas a positive association between CV fitness and total achievement score, mathscore and reading score. Similarly, significant associations between fitnessscores and state-wide academic achievement tests in Texas were recentlyreported by Welk (2010).Based on previous study done by Mansonet al, 2015, four different domains of activity are customarily distinguishedin the study which are household, occupational, active travel/transport andleisure-time (including sport) in contributions to mental health and positivemental wellbeing. People achieving PA from familyactivities, and those doing more diverse PAs, had better mental wellbeing.Active travel was associated with better mental wellbeing and mental healthamong the highly and moderately physically active, respectively.
Highly activepeople who engaged in leisure-based PA had better mental health. Long-standingillness was associated with worse health scores, although mental wellbeing wasameliorated amongst those who did domestic or occupational PA (Mason, Curl and Kearns, 2016).Academic performance in the schools isone of the determinants of whether the institution, the students or theteachers have accomplished their educational aims. It is generally used todefine various factors that might influence student achievement in schools (Amasuomo,2014).
Some researchers believed that cognitive ability plays a significantrole in the expectation of academic achievement among school students (Lessonet al., 2008).Cognitive performance is an essential indicator of abilitiesand skills from the psychological functional ranges such as perception,attention (concentration), learning and retention, thinking and intelligence(Newell et al., 2003); Tomporowski, 2008). In addition, cognitive performanceis a core mental ability that enables people to learn effectively. It supportthe ability to read, remember, comprehend, interpret and analyse information.It is essential for students’ academic performance because it strengthen higherthinking for the acquisition of knowledge. When students’ cognitive skills arestrengthened, their overall learning ability will improve (Olivia, 2012).
Memory is a type of cognitive function that is involved inlearning and is often considered as the mental workspace where essentialinformation is retained in a very active state with a variety of othercognitive processes (Pesce et al., 2009). It includes the processes ofencoding, storing, and manipulating this information. Memory enables a studentto retain information for a short time when they are using or processing it(Baddeley et al., 1999). Inability to retain information long enough or tohandle it correctly impacts learning ability.
Therefore, efficient memory isgenerally considered essential for students to cope with scholastic and dailylife demnads (Olivia, 2010). Memory is central to cognitive improvement as it isconsidered to be connected to age-related increase in storage capability andbetter use of available storage capacity (Pesce et al., 2009). Research hasdocumented that difficulty in working memory may cause learning problems whichconsequently lead to poor academic performance.
Moreover, students who lackworking memory and function of memory storage will face problems in learning,which consequently lead to behavioural complications (Passolunghi & Siegel,2001; Aronen et al., 2005). Besides, students learn by processing information,filtering out the unintended information, and store only the intendedinformation into short-term memory. The information will then be encoded andstored inlong term memory. When the information is retrieved from the long termmemory, it will again be stored into the short-term memory (Gazzaniga &Heatherton, 2003). Theoretical models of working memory often decsribe a rolefor attention in selecting the information to be encoded into working memory(Miyake & Shah, 1999). Fougnie (2008) recommended that attention isimportant for the encoding and manipulation of information in memory. Mack& Rock (1998) proposed that one ite should be primarily attended before itwill be encoded into memory.
After encoding the information into workingmemory, they will be stored there until the information is retrieved. A growingnumber of studies provide strong evidences for the relationship betweenattention, learning and memory. Therefore, separating attention in learningleads to decrease prefrontal brain regions activity that is associated withmemory and it has long been recognized to reduce performance of memory (Sarteret al.
, 2009).The common indicator of obesity is body mass index (BMI). Previousstudy shown the relative strengths of BMI and waist circumference as predictorsof cardio-metabolic risk in young adults from different ethno-culturalbackgrounds (Wang et al., 2005). It has been recommended that BMI, adjusted forage and gender, is a practical estimation for overweight in adolescent andchildren (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence & NationalCollaborating Centre for Primary Care, 2006). BMI classification for childrenand adolescents is presented in table 1.
1.Donnelly and colleagues completed a3-year cluster randomized, controlled trial of 24 elementary schools amonggrade 2 and 3 students to compare changes in fitness and fatness with changesin academic achievement in schools that received PAAC. PAAC promoted 90min/weekof moderate to vigorous physically active academic lessons (3.0 to 6.0 METS,~10 min each) delivered intermittently throughout the school day. The resultfrom that study was change in BMI from baseline to 3 years was significantlyinfluenced by exposure to PAAC. Schools with greater than 75 min of PAAC/weekshowed significantly less increase in BMI at 3 years compared to schools withlower than 75 min of PAAC/ week (Donnelly& Lambourne 2011).Taras and Potts-Datema (2005) reviewed7 studies (4 cross-sectional–3 non-randomized prospective) on the associationof BMI and academic achievement.
Results indicated higher BMI was associated withlower academic achievement. Children who exceeded CDC sex and age specific BMIstandards scored lower for math, reading, and language tests compared tostudents with desirable BMI status even after controlling for parent education.On balance, Gunstad et al. (2008) found no relation between BMI and cognitivetest performance in a sample of 478 children and adolescents.
Achievementscores were significantly lower in overweight compared with non- overweightchildren.