English 10 – Elements of Poetry

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Last updated: November 29, 2019

Stanzas
the groups that lines in a poem are organized into

Iambic Pentameter
contains 10 syllables, or five iambic feet

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Enjambment
when a thought is carried over from one line to the next

When is a line enjambed?
when a line breaks before completing a grammatical unit

Free Verse
poems that do not follow regular metrical patterns

Rhyme
the repetition of vowel and consonant sounds at the end of words

End Rhyme
rhymes at the end of lines

Internal Rhyme
rhymes that appear within lines

Exact Rhyme
stressed vowel sounds are identical, sometimes can be heavy or predictable. Example: “cool” and “fool”

Slant Rhyme
uses word with similar, but not exact, end sounds.

Example: “gill” and “shell”

Rhyme Scheme
a pattern of end rhymes in a poem – use letters to identify

Couplet
a pair of rhyming lines, usually of the same meter and length

Alliteration
the repetition of initial consonant sounds

Assonance
the repetition of vowel sounds within stressed syllables that have different consonant sounds

Consonance
the repetition of final consonant sounds within stressed syllables that have different vowel sounds

Onomotopoeia
an actual or invented word that imitates the sound of what it names or describes

Speaker
serves the same function as the narrator. however, even when the speaker uses the first person pronoun “I”,the speaker is not the poet but rather an imaginary voice created by the poet.

Tone
attitude projected toward the subject and the audience

Formal Tone
features standard English and formal grammar

Informal Tone
may feature slang expressions

Denotation
a word’s definition

Connotation
the emotional associations a word evokes

Sensory Details
appeal to sight, sound, hearing, taste, touch, which creates imagery in the mind of the reader and evoke emotional associations

Figurative Language
not meant to be taken literally

Simile
make direct comparisons using like or as

Metaphors
make direct comparisons by stating one thing is another

Personification
gives human qualities to nonhuman things

Hyperbole
an extreme exaggeration

Formal Verse
follows established patterns

Narrative Poetry
tells a story and has a plot, characters, and a setting

Epic Poem
a long narrative poem about gods or heroes

Ballad
a shorter poem that describes a single event and may be set to music

Dramatic Poetry
tells a story using a character’s own thoughts or spoken statements – this a component of many classical plays

Lyric Poetry
expressed the feelings of a single speaker using melodic language, imagery, rhythm, and sound devices to express emotions.

Common forms include the ode, elegy, sonnet, haiku, and tanka.

Odes
poems of praise that often exhibit complex metrical patterns, specific rhyme schemes, and stanzas of ten or more lines each

Elegies
poems of loss that express both praise for the dead and an element of consolation

Sonnets
14 line poems in which each line consists of 5 feet (iambic pentameter)

Haiku
a form of Japanese poetry that consists of 3 unrhymed line of 5, 7, and 5 syllables

Tanka
a form of Japanese poetry that consists of 5 unrhymed lines of 5, 7, 5, 7, and 7 syllables

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