Mark Twain, 1865, A frame narrative is a literary technique of a story framed within another story. Twain begins and ends in the voice of a man searching for Mr. Smiley, but the majority of the story is told by Mr.
Wheeler. This might bring distance between the reader and what actually happened in the story because we are hearing it second hand. This is especially true if the narrator is unreliable or not as educated. Jim Smiley was the man who would bet on anything. He turned his frog Dan’l Webster into a pet and bet a stranger his frog could jump higher than his. when smiley wasn’t looking the stranger filled the frog with quail oil and Smiley lost the bet and $40. All characters are hustlers gets pathetic looking animals – twain liked to use animals to describe political figures in society. Twain is a realist writer
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(1) First, it refers generally to any artistic or literary portrayal of life in a faithful, accurate manner, unclouded by false ideals, literary conventions, or misplaced aesthetic glorification and beautification of the world.
,,,The detailed descriptions, as well as writing about ordinary people and their everyday lives and conversations, are typical characteristics of the realist literary movement.
Song of Myself
Walt Whitman , 1855, emerges himself with the world uses symbols to get at important issues, communion between individuals and a mans relationship with the natural world. Uses long lines along with the 5 sense. uses vivid imagery about nature
I heard a fly buzz
Emily Dickinson, 1892, heard a fly buzz when she was on her death bed, she was ready to die, this is a really gloomy and depressing poem. The fly is gross Dickinson uses dashes as punctuation her poems are short and compact
My life had stood
Emily Dickinson, 1895, the poem is a riddle challenges reader to identify speaker, her poems are mainly about death and religion.
some people say the poet herself is the loaded gun and that she is willing to fight her master’s head battles for him
tell all the truth but tell it slant
Emily Dickinson, 1897, the truth is that we don’t know that much about dickinson personal life she lived with her parents all her life but one year.
The real thing
Henry James, 1892, he is known as the father of realism, european realism focus on everyday life, regular people, was revolutionary, focuses on middle class life, artist is visited my Major and Mr. Monarch, artist thinks they want a portrait but then realizes they want to pose as paid models, they are the real thing of society which he is trying to capture, and they think since they are aristocrats it will be enough, Miss Chrum is a professional
From the Art of fiction
Henry James, 1884, James believed in first hand experiences, he wanted to experience thing for himself, establishes the novel as a serious artistic genre, identifies the unique characteristics, and lays out fundamentals for critical analysis. one of the most influential statements on a theory of a novel
Edith Wharton, 1934, considered a realist work, about a conversation of two upper-middle class woman who are sitting on a terrance in rome.
“Ladies who lunch”= upper middle class. mainly a third person narrative, mostly on detailed conversation and two world of the woman, motifs= jealousy, roman fever, and knitting
Stephen Crane, 1898, perfect example of naturalist movement, key concept how do society and environment impact people, bases a lot of his ideas on social darwinism, Crane wrote in a simplest style, all four men working tirelessly to stay alive and keep boat afloat, themes, death relationship with nature, brotherhood, he viewed life as a struggle to survive.
from The Souls of Black Folk
Du Bois, 1903, double consiousness is a sense of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others, purpose of this is to share black experience, exploration, veil is the boundary of race=barrier. there was a difference between black identity and american identity he wanted to bring the two together but he felt as if he had two souls negro and american.
The Yellow Wall-paper
Gilman, 1892, in this she touches on depression, the narrator is confined by her a mental sickness at the beginning and she is mentally insane at the end.
something is off with her and her husband john who just moved to a new home, while she is alone she starts seeing a figure in the yellow wall paper, and the figure is trying to escape. the narrator is trying to escape form the lone prison that is her life. she tore down all the wallpaper to free the figure
The sculptor’s Funeral
Willa Cather’s, 1905, centered around realism , “how can individual live within a society” Merrick leaves and fulfills the life of a sculptor because he wanted to get out of town and do what he wanted. When he was brought back into town to be burried many people didn’t pay their respects and weren’t worried about him his friend Jim Laird a lawyer realized that life isn’t all about money and it eats away at him that he is too drunk to even go to the funeral.
In a Station at the Metro
Ezra Pound, 1913 known for her modernist poetry, 14 word poem “the apparition of these faces in the crowd; petals on a wet black bough” very somber feel pound portrays, paris metro describing the ghostly faces he is seeing in the crowd. happening during World War 1 a lot of historical events. contemplating the quality of life.
The Red Wheelbarrow
Williams Carlos Williams, 1923, writes very short poems and in free verse does not have a rhyming pattern, writes about naturalism, nature, he talks about everyday experiences but explains their importance in life. “So much depends upon” relationship with their surrounding.
first line contain meaning of whole poem
This is Just to Say
Williams Carolos Williams, 1934, short poems, free verse, “forgive me they were delicious” heart of the poem , infidelity fruit , rubbing it in that he ate the plums
H.D, 1915, one of the first female writers during this period, imagist poetry, lots of lavish and strong language, movement of the ocean water, forest imagery,
The Love song of J. Alfred Prufrock
T.S Eliot 1915, framed as a love song, in this poem goes back to tradition but rejects it at the time, wasn’t comfortable with his status as a writer, very vivid character achievement, when he mentions the ocean he is talking about his emotional distance from the world. comes to recognize his second status.
in American literature is rejecting the logic that there is a neutral viewpoint to society in the United States. It has different perspectives and a different value system. It is also very subjective. In modernism writings, there are elements of realism, where it uses tradition is different ways. There is a stream of consciousness techniques in the pieces of work.
Modernism is a very loose term for the literary movement that developed after World War I, and reflects the distinctive character of the modern world, with its banks, telephones, guns, automobiles, and whatnot.
tradition and individual talent
T.S elliot, 1919 modernist
Frost, 1913, frost is an individualist , poet of the countryside, poet of the people, frost wants to be a poet from all sorts and kinds , two meanings in his poetry he’s intelligent but wants people to read it. talks about scythe whisphering to him. no human to human interactions within his poems all about nature. rural vs urban talks about everyday life , we realized that he as a farmer
frost, 1914, talks about a wood pile in the middle of the forest he does, walking through a frozen swamp wants to turn around but keeps going
the road not taken
frost, 1916, the speaker comes up to a fork in the road both very worn, he claims that he took the road less traveled and that it made all the difference . the speaker knows he will second guess himself down the line but he has to choose one.
cease the day carpe diem
stopping by woods on a snowy evening
frost, 1923, watch the woods fill up with snow, “all miles to go before i sleep” there are obligations pulling him away from watching the snow fall.
Neither out far nor in deep
frost, 1936, he was in the modernist era looking at the sea all day, they are sitting in the sand and can’t look out far but occasionally see a ship that passes
f. Scott fitzgerald , 1931, a story of a man visiting paris in attempt to get his daughter back, modersnist aspects charlie wants to reconnect with his daughter visit paris, charlie is druken at the ritz bar. he was in the stockmarket when it was at its highest and when it crashed. along with he locked his wife out in the snow
The Snow Man
Wallace Stevens, 1931, clear focus on season winter, heart of modernest movement early 20th century.
modernism recoiling of romantic poetry, rejecting beautiful landscape , last line very allusive “nothing that is not there and the nothing that is” realism with imagination seeing things that aren’t thereobervational/ sensoral
The Emperor of Ice Cream
Wallace Stevens, 1923 , stevens has a dark side to him , metatation of death. stevens is a poet of the everyman, poetry and imagination have central roles , preperation for a funeral , “let the wenches dawdle in such dress as they are used to wear, and let the boys bring flowers in last months newspaper” a woman who died,
Dissillusionment of Ten O’clock
Wallace Stevens, 1931, it doesn’t make sense its about strange things happening at night, talks about how people wear boring pajamas “by white night-gowns, none are green, or purple” and they are going to have boring dreams because of it.
Thirteen Ways of looking at a Blackbird
Wallace Stevens, 1931, thirteen brief mysterious sections of different ways to look at a blackbird, this poem makes us look at blackbirds in new ways that usually hang around telephone poles and are so basic stevens was a really normal guy from conneticut, he was kind of a blackbird himself didn’t really stick out
Moore, 1920-1930, moore was a writer in the earliest part of the modernist movement. lots of description of people animals, places, first like she states that she dislikes poetry ” I too, dislike it: there are things that are important beyond all this fiddle” she doesn’t like stereotypical poetry
The Paper Nautilus
Moore 1940-1960, making analogy of paper nautilus to poet, shell, “For authorities whose hopes are shaped by mercenaries, writers entrapped by teatime fame and by commuters comfort” she talks about how writers write for fame and not for themselves ,, she talks about the shell and writing to feel free and write for yourself
A rose for Emily
Faulkner, 1930, southern gothic , he was raised in the south and often wrote about his upbringing, often created voices for his characters even dead ones and was very spooky. he wrote about childhood, families, race, obsession.
A clean well-lighted place
Hemingway, 1933, modernist writer, wrote about loneliness of old man sitting in bar he is deaf, one of the waiter says,”Each night I am reluctant to close up because there may be some one who needs the café.” the older waiter can sympothize with the deaf man because he is also lonely and doesn’t want to go home and be by himself. short sentences, simple language
A man who was almost a man
Wright, 1939, dave a 17 year old working on Mr.
hawkins farm wants a gun, he thinks the gun represents manhood, he kills a mule and then later shoots the gun more and decides to leave town and jump on a train