English III H: Harlem Renaissance and Modern Poetry

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Last updated: December 17, 2019
who was named poet laureate of harlem
langston hughes
wrote about writings centered on poor and working class African Americans; favored Dunbar and Sandburg
langston hughes

was discovered by Vachel Lindsay
langston hughes

recreated structures of blues and jazz music in poetry
langson hughes

langston hughes wrote
Harlem, I too, the Weary Blues

speaker
narrator of story, speaker of poem

hughes used jazz influenced rhythm, rhythmic repetition and refrain
all of these created musical forms for his poetry

rhythm
pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables

refrain
one or more repeated lines of poetry like chorus of song

what is the meaning of the title Harlem
as frustration from limitations of dreams begin to expand, violence and crime may break out such as in Harlem. Broken dreams may be why there is so much violence in Harlem

Harlem is
simple in structure, short, no rhyme scheme, no predictable stanzas, free verse, line breaks and italics

Harlem discusses the l
limitations of the African Americans on their dream (American dream?)

I, Too is in response to
Whitman’s I Hear America Singing

Difference is race in
I, Too

In I, Too the speaker also sings America. The attitude is
hopeful and patriotic

I, too and Harlem have
• Simple in structure, short, singlets, no rhyme scheme, no predictable stanzas or rhythm, completely free verse, the line break,

Meaning of I, Too
All are American even though race differs; what makes one an American is not the skin color

the weary blues uses
onomatopoeia, repetition, rhyme, parallelism, ect

the weary blues mimics
natural sounds of speech and music

in the weary blues, music isn’t meant to entertain but to
show emotions

Explain last lines of The Weary Blues
Hughes shows that the signer has brought all his feelings out with the music and has not done anything risky like drinking or violence

who dedicated his life to fighting prejudice and inspiring Africans
James Weldon Johnson

who graduated from Atlanta University and founded a daily newspaper
James Weldon Johnson

first African American lawyer since Reconstruction to be admitted to the Florida bar
James Weldon Johnson
Lift Every Voice and Sing was made by who and became what
James Johnson; African American national anthem.

My City
James Weldon Johnson

My city is what type of sonnet
Italian or Petrarchan

Attitude of My City
sad, compassionate

Main idea behind My City
the poet will miss his city (Manhattan) more than nature; meant more to him

Sonnet
14 line lyric poem with specific patterns of rhythm and rhyme

Italian/Petrarchan
two parts: octave (8) and sestet(6)octave: abbabbaSestet: cdccde or cdccdc

English/Shakespearean
four line groups with three quatrains (4 lines) and couplet (pair)abab cdcd efef gg

iambic pentameter
five pairs of syllables, unstressed/strssed

Claude McKay was called the
poet of rebellion
Claude McKay was called the

McKay wrote when the country was going through the
Red Summer (riots)

If We Must Die
claude mckay; said to be used by Churchill in speech

if we must die is a ___ sonnet?
english/Shakespearean

Meaning of If We Must Die
even in death, we must stand up

who graduated from NYU and won immediate critical acclaim
countee cullen
who graduated from NYU and won immediate critical acclaim

who was influence by Romantic poets
countee cullen

whose work addressed universal concerns and wanted to break racial barriers
countee cullen

theme
underlying message about life or human nature

Any human to another implies
universailty

Inversion makes sentences of Any human to another complex
ex.

illness/sadness goes through the fat, to bone and then marrow

Any human to another; speakers says that all people
share sorrow

arrow in Any human to another represents
ills that have harmed the speaker

in Any human to another, there is an allusion to
Jesus’ crown of thorns; humans heal by bearing each other’s sufferings like Jesus did.

who was raised in eatonville, Florida and says this gave her self-confidence
zora neale hurston

who went to Barnard
zora neale hurston

who helped to rediscover zora after her decline and death
alice walker

background of How it feels to be colored me
there are many independent towns of African Americans; Zora was sheltered by exclusion

How it feels to be colored me; Zora uses jokes about mixed race to
add humor

extended metaphor in How it feels to be colored me
Zora and others watch the whites like a show with different views and seats

when Zora left Eastonville, she says she became
colored; she noticed her race was a big deal

Zora believes that other writers write about sorrows of being colored, but she is happy

Zora’s mention of generations and the race serves to
say how slavery is in the past and generations are “preparing” her to start to run the race for rights and independence

Zora finds excitement in the fact that she
is blamed or praised double the white person

Zora feels colored when?
in a group white people, at barnard and when there is a white person among the blacks

Metaphor about bags in How it feels to be colored me serves to show that
out skin color doesn’t matter b/c we are all pieces and bits of things

How it feels to be colored me; allusion?
lions in front of Library in NY

Edwin Arlington Robinson struggles?
alcoholism, lost mother and brothers, poor

who used imaginary town of Tilbury to show town’s repressive and materialistic culture
edwin arlington robison

things that influence characterization
physical description, character’s own thoughts and comments of other characters

Message of Richard Cory
never really know what someone is doing underneath a mask of life

“in fine, we thought that he was everything/ to make us wish that we were in his place.”
richard cory

Miniver cheevy wishes he could be wear
in a period with sword and romance

Miniver cheevy turns to ____ b/c
alcohol; he is dying and says this is fate

Miniver cheevy is
mocking/sympathetic/humorous

Lucinda Matlock is by
edgar lee masters

edgar lee masters used what fictional town
Spoon RIver

Who admired hard work and resilience but despised small-mindedness and bigotry
edgar lee masters

two meanings of life and Life in Lucinda Matlock
life= energy and livelinessLife=time spent on earth

Lucinda Matlock is ___ while others are third person
first person

Attitude of lucidna matlock
she is pleased with life

carl sandburg was popular b/c he wrote about
American spirit and speech

who served in the Spanish War and then went to Lombard college
Carl Sandburg

became organizer for Wisconsin Social-Democratic Party
Carl Sandburg

who won a 1951 Pulitzer Prize
Carl Sandburg

epithets in
chicago

Chicago is personified as a _____ in Sandburg’s Chicago
large, muscular man

Chicago has
parallelsim, reverse indent

Main theme of Chicago
everyone needs what Chicago produces; even thought something looks bad and seems bad doesn’t mean it is not important or needed

who used to teach and then was inspired by the New Hampshire landscape and began writing
Robert Frost
who used to teach and then was inspired by the New Hampshire landscape and began writing

who won a Pulitzer Prize for “New Hampshire”
Robert Frost

during the later years of Frost’s life he wrote about
bleakness of life; he lost family

mood
overall feeling of atmosphere the writer creates for the reader

ambiguity
contain more than one meaning; often open to various even opposing interpretations

luminary clock in acquainted with the night
moon

what poem has interlocking rhyme scheme
acquainted with the night

night represents ____ in frost’s poem
depression

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