Why was the chief’s wife dream considered sad?
Her dream was of power and the Native Americans felt the quest for power leads to sadness.
Power is portrayed as a bad thing.
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Where does evil come from according to “Walam Olum”
An evil Manito brought evil into the world. Man does not bring evil upon themselves and man is not responsible for bad in the world.
To what do Native Americans attribute bad things happening?
When bad things happen, they feel balance was lost and gods are responding.
Major cause of unhappiness according to “Walam Olum”
Main purpose of Walam Olum is to explain
how the world was created
In the Onondaga myth, “The Earth on Turtle Back,” the ancient leader feels __ about his wife’s dream
One of the heroes in the Onondaga myth was
Myths were often created in order to
explain the mystery of creation
Examples of subjective details in The General History of Virginia
Smith’s dislike of the other leaders of JamestownPresident was weak in judgementSmith had good words, kept promisesIndians are “Barbarians”Indians admire SmithBelief that God saved them
Why did John Smith write part of The General History of Virginia in the 3rd person?
It adds credibility to the account.
He can make himself seem great with more validity rather than just sounding arrogant.
Why didn’t the settlers like the President?
He was selfish and kept his food supply to himself while the other settlers starved.
How does Smith impress the Indians who capture him?
He shows them his compass and in exchange for guns, Powhatan allows him to return to Jamestown.
Smith’s purpose for writing The General History of Virginia
He wanted to show there were many obstacles and even though success may not have been instant, the obstacles were overcome and they were successful.
What does Smith emphasize in order to persuade other English people of the eventual success of his settlement.
His treatment by Native Americans
What Puritan belief is important in Of Plymouth Plantation?
Acceptance of human unworthiness
Objective details in Of Plymouth Plantation
the ship was heavily damaged by winds and fierce stormsJohn Howland fell overboard but was saved by a ropeIndians who spoke some English helped the settlers and made peace with them upon specific terms
Bradford contrasts the behavior of the pilgrims with that of the seamen in order to
emphasize the compassionate nature of Puritanism
What was Bradford’s purpose in writing Of Plymouth Plantation?
Bradford is writing to other Puritans.
He is trying to show them that God took care of them and hoped it would persuade other Puritans to join them in the New World.
Some Puritan values that are stressed in Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
strong work ethicfaith in the face of adversityvengeful GodGod is all powerfulGod is primary thing in life
Jonathan Edwards compares his audience to the
Israelites; they too have strayed away from God.
Jonathan Edwards’s audience was
Puritans and other protestant faith practices
The purpose of Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God was to
bring Puritans back to the church
Edwards’s message was
God is all sustaining; you have fallen away (as did the Israelites).
Only God’s mercy will/is keeping you from hell. You must repent and rejoin the church
In his sermon, Edwards assumes the members of his congregation believe that they are
When Edwards compares each person in his audience to a spider, or ” some loathsome insect (held) over the fire,” he does so to emphasize each persons
powerlessness in comparison to God
At the end of his sermon, what does Edwards imply is the only way to escape God’s wrath?
Conversion to Puritanism
Ways in which Anne Bradstreet displays Puritanism in “To My Dear and Loving Husband”
the heavens are rewarding her with loveGod will recompense her husband for loving her so well
Ways in which Anne Bradstreet is not Puritan
she talks about riches from earthshe loves her husband over Godfocuses on love/emotionthe poem was written by a woman
Poetic Devices used in To My Dear and Loving Husband
repetition (to build an emotion)personificationmetaphorrhyme schemeimagery
In “To My Dear and Loving Husband,” which device most helps Bradstreet to create the single, unified effect of a lyric poem?
Repeating images relating to the richness of her marital love
What is the main idea of “To My Dear and Loving Husband”
Bradstreet loves her husband above all earth things
Franklin’s purpose for writing The Autobiography
to set an example for others and to show that he tried to achieve perfection; he shows himself in a good light.
What virtue gives Franklin the most trouble
The aim of Franklin’s scheme in “Of moral Perfection” is to
eliminate his faults
Toward the end of his life, he realized that striving for perfection brought him
Which view of America is most strongly implied in the selection from Franklin’s Autobiography
It’s a land of opportunity
“Love thy neighbor, yet don’t pull down your hedge stresses the value of
Recurring themes and lessons in Poor Richard’s Almanac
friendship; to be carefulprudence (good sense)value of experiencehard work
Poor Richard’s Almanac is a contrast to Franklin’s Autobiography in that it
focuses on othe rpeopleis more critical of peoplepoints out flaws rather than accept imperfection
In The Declaration of Independence, Jefferson believes that he is justified in his complaints because
God entitled him to these copmlaints
Jefferson uses what literary device to prove his point
Purpose of the Declaration:
lists injustices of king and shows the colonists have jurisdiction to declare independence
England; the public at large/ the world
The declaration of independence suggests that Jefferson’s attitude toward breaking away from Britain is probably one of
Paine’s audience is
men who have given up but are needed to fight
How does Paine persuade men to fight?
he uses emotion
to spur soldiers onward and to fight now
Prominent literary devices in Paine’s Crisis
aphorismscharged wordsanecdotecall to action (Paine does not call to God like most other calls to action do)metaphorPersonification
What is the main point in Paine’s The Crisis
The colonists must endure despite hardships
Paine uses the “summer soldier” and “sunshine patriot” to refer to
Those who support the Revolution only when it is convenient
As a man of the Enlightenment, Paine valued
In citing examples of the oppression that has brought the colonists to this point, Jefferson lays the blame on
the king alone
Around what specific ideas does Henry organize his speech
there is no longer any possibility
An “American” as defined in Letters from an American Farmer is
a mix of blood, a man who embraces new life, new government, new rank, new manners
In “Letters from an American Farmer” Crevecoeur’s overall attitude toward Americans is one of
In the same work, Crevecoeur states that “Formerly [the poor of Europe] were not numbered in any civil lists of their country, except in those of the poor; [in America] they rank as citizens.” In his view America differs from Europe because it:
encourages its people to prosper
Anaphora is best described as
repetition at the beginning of a sentence
Purpose of Patrick Henry’s Speech
to convince delegates of the need for armed resistence against the feared british attack.
What characteristic of Puritan townspeople is stressed in The Devil and Tom Walker
the people are poor and becoming greedy
In what was is Tom Walker a stereotyped character?
He symbolizes human greed and misery
A main lesson of The Devil and Tom Walker is
Greed leads to misery
It can be inferred from The Devil and Tom Walker that many Puritan’s believed in
witches and spirits
Which of these observations about the story stems from the use of an omniscient narrator
The narrator makes clear the motives and desires of Tom and his wife
Romanticism in literature includes all of the following beliefs EXCEPT
Man’s reliance on God comes before everything else
The main point of Old Ironsides
the boat is a symbol of pride and victory due to past eventsdirected towards American society to convey patriotism even 116 years later
purpose of writing Old Ironsides
the ship was going to be destroyed and this was written to persuade people to preserve it and only let it be destroyed in battle
In “Old Ironsides” what personality trait does the author give the ship?
Man’s view of nature in the period of romanticism was
The main point of A Psalm of Life
life should be lived; always remember tomorrow is a step further in our lives; we are always dying but we should live life to the fullest. Don’t dwell on the past or future; live in the now!
A Psalm of Life” urges people to
The First Snowfall depicts nature
as a healer and as something that can bring back memoriesnature is God’s vessel for healing and God works through naturenature is a comforting presence
After he made a deal with the Devil, Tom Walker lived a lifestyle characterized by
Privation (lack of necessities)
In The First Snowfall James Russel Lowell kisses his alive daughter as
a last goodbye to his dead daughter
Central poetic device in Thanatopsis
personification of nature
view of death
For people who have a relationship with nature, nature.
speaks different languages; when a man is happy, nature smiles. When man is sad, nature is comforting
When we die, according to Bryant, what happens?
we don’t exist in life and earth claims our growth.
We mix in the dirt and are no longer present in the visible world. We decompose and become part of nature
Bryant’s main point in Thanatopsis
live life to its fullest and embrace death when it comes knowing you will experience pleasant dreams.
The central theme of “The First Snowfall” comments on
The sadness and spiritual recovery from loss
Which word best describes Longfellow’s attitude toward death in “The Tide rises, The Tide Falls”?
The main theme of The Tide Rises, The Tide Falls
accept that death is going to happen and after you die, life goes on. You are a temporary footprint and nature will go on without you. You’re just part of an inevitable ongoing process: life and death.
Overriding device in The Tide Rises, The Tide Falls
Although at first Poe is afraid of the raven, he eventually
becomes attached to the Raven and is sad that the Raven will leave him
Poe suspects the bird may be ____ because he is driving Poe crazy
What does Poe ask the Raven?
Poe wants the bird to tell him about Lenore in heaven and asks if she is an angel
Poe’s unified effect
How is The Raven romantic?
focus on feelings/emotionsimaginationnature acting on man in a dark way
Which of the following best describes Poe’s single effect
Every element in a piece of short fiction should contribute to giving the reader the same feeling
How do sound devices relate to the speaker’s state of mind in “The Raven”?
they stress his irrationality
One theme of The Fall of the House of Usher is
A person who is isolated can give into destructive imagination
Usher can best be described as
nervous and excitable
Which detail or details early in the story foreshadows, or hints at, the end of the Fall of the House of Usher?
the narrator’s fear of the tarn
Roderick is scared because he suspects the nosies around the house are caused by
his dead sister who he fears they bury alive
When Madeline appears what kills Roderick
Nature has a similar meaning to that of
Nature emphasizes that
every individual is equal in nature.
there is no self centeredness and in nature, you become aware of yourself in the world
Which of the following qualities does Emerson promote in Nature and Self- Reliance?
In Walden, Thoreau defines success as
living out one’s dreams
Walden encourages people to live their lives how?
He believed people needed to simplify their lives and rekindle their connection with nature.
According to Thoreau, government is all except
capable of wiser decisions than its citizens
Thoreau makes it clear in Civil Obedience that he believes the government is
easily corrupt and manipulated
How is the concept of the “Over-Soul” best defined?
it is the spiritual link between humanity, God, and the rest of creation
Thoreau believed that what some people call improvements are superfluous or –.
According to Emerson, — will remember those who are not afraid to be misunderstood:
According to Self-Reliance, man can discover his powers through
Emerson feels society is selfish and that they should
accept God’s place for them and their destiny
In Self-Reliance Emerson stresses that you are great if,
you are an individual, a nonconformist
According to Self- Reliance, society most values
Emily Dickinson was influenced by whom?
Emerson and Thoreau (transcendentalists)
What was Dickinson’s approach to nature?
She did not glorify it and described it as it was
Common imagery used by Dickinson
light vs. darknature as the observer (personification of nature)contrasts
Emily Dickinson is known for being an
In Leaves of Grass Whitman celebrates
all the imperfect aspects (every leave) of America which make up a kaleidoscope of images and lifestyles making America the greatest poem
In Song of Myself Whitman’s tone is
What type of lifestyle does Whitman emphasize?
outdoors lifestyle where one lives in harmony with nature
Is Whitman a transcendentalist or an anti-transcendentalist?
In I Hear America Sining Whitman stresses that
everything is worth mentioning
Main Point of Dickinson’s I Heard A Fly Buzz-When I Died
In death, despite preparations and ceremonies, she is with the most simplest creature-a fly. She has an accepting attitude towards death.
Main Point of Dickinson’s I Could Not Stop for Death
Life is like a carriage ride toward your death but death is kindly The author is “leaving life” with death. She is excluded from life and looking at her life from a new viewpoint.
Main Point of Dickinson’s Parting
Painful experiences such as a loved one dying can feel like death has come onto yourself.
Main Point of Dickinson’s There is a Solitude of Peace
People will only find complete solitude when they look into their soul and into themselves. There is solitude in space, sea, and death but society can only truly find solitude inside of themselves. You find solitude within yourself.
Main Point of Dickinson’s the Soul Selects her Own Society
Your soul chooses the one person who completes and then shuts off to everyone else.
Main Point of Dickinson’s There’s a Certain Slant of Light
The slant of light brings a sad feeling about you. You know that what’s coming is darkness.
This somewhat deals with death.
Main Point of Dickinson’s Water is Taught by Thirst
Message: you don’t know what you’ve got until it’s gone you learn things from the opposite and define things by the opposite. Metaphors and contrasts are used to show this.
Main Point of Dickinson’s Tell the Truth but Tell it Slant
You should regulate the truth. Truth in moderation—sometimes the truth could be negative or is too great. The truth can be blinding because it can be too much to absorb. The truth must be told overtime or no one will know the real truth or understand it.
Main Point of Dickinson’s How Happy is the Little Stone
Simplicity and serene alone time can bring happiness. The central image is a stone, alone in the middle of a road.
Main Point of Dickinson’s Epigram
The author is writing a letter to the world asking them to be kind because the world is created by nature and God’s hands are at the center of all nature.
Main Point of Dickinson’s Fame is A Fickle Food
Fame can be a man’s downfall. Fame is transitory and always changing.
It is a bad thing and leads you wanting.