English III Poetry Unit

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Last updated: December 10, 2019
Move from logical writing to writing focused on imagination/nature.

Famous Romantic Poets
Washington IrvingEdgar Allen PoeWalt WhitmanEmily DickensonRalph Waldo EmersonHawthorn

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Sect within Romantic Poetry that believed nature was a great over soul and was very important to life.

Famous Trascendentalist poets
Ralph Waldo EmersonHenery David Thoreau

What poetic movement did Romanticism revolt against?
Neoclassical (Logic, Fact)

What are some well known Romantic topics?
Nature, Individualism, Separation, Beauty, Myths of the Middle Ages, Freedom from Rules, Spontaneity

What famous romantic poet was born in 1783 to a rich family?
Washington Irving

Where did Irving tour between 815-1832? Why?
Europe, to study literature and write his own poetry.

True or False: A History of New York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty is Irving’s first work.


Which of the following are other famous works by Irving?A. Legend of Sleepy HollowB. Rip Van WinkleC. The RavenD. The Complete History of Washington D.C.

from the Beginning of the Wolrd to the End of the Dutch DynastyE. Tales of a TravelerF. The Devil and Tom Walker

A. Legend of Sleepy Hollow, B. Rip Van Winkle E. Tales of a Traveler, and F.

The Devil and Tom Walker are some of his most famous works.

What were some of Irving’s pseudonyms?
Dredrich Knickerbocker, Geoffery Crayon, Jonathan Oldstyle

Work in which human vice is attacked through irony, derision, or wit.

Form of Satire; extreme exageration

Style of Satire; Meant to “delight”; laughed at humans; highlighted human fault gently/fairly

Form of Satire; Extreme exaggeration of features

Un-rhymed style of poetry in iambic pentameter
Blank Verse

No set meter or rhyme scheme
Free Verse

What is an i am?
Standard for judging distance in Iambic pentameter (unstressed, stressed) i am)

How many sets of “i am” are in one line of iambic pentameter?
5 (PENTAmeter)

How many lines are in blank and free verse?

Expression that says one things but means something else.

A play on words

Repetition of consonant sounds at or near the beginning of the word.

Repetition of vowel sounds with different ending consonants.


Are rhyme and assonance the same?

Repetition of the same end consonant at the end of the word.

Words that imitate a sound

Repetition of words in a poem

What are the two types of Sonnet?
Italian (Petrachan) and Shakespearean (Elizabethan)

What is the rhyme scheme of Shakespearean Sonnets?
abab cdcd efef gg

How many lines, quatrains, and couplets make up a Shakespearean Sonnet?
14 lines, broken up into 3 quatrains (4 Lines) and 1 couplet (2 lines)

Is either sonnet in iambic pentameter?
Yes, they both are.

What do quatrain 1 and 2 describe in a Shakespearean Sonnet? Quatrain 3? The Couplet?
1 and 2: Problem3: Turning PointCouplet: Answer

What is the rhyme scheme of a Italian sonnet?
abbaabba cdecde

How many lines are in an Italian sonnet?
14 lines, broken up into an octave (8 lines) and a sestet (six lines)

What does each part of an Italian Sonnet represent?
Octave: ProblemSestet: Turning Point and Sestet

What are the conventions of a ballad?
Simple Language, Tells a Story in Third Person, Quatrains, Repetition, Dialouge

What is the rhyme scheme of a ballad?
abcb defe etc…

A very long poem that tells the heroic journey of a single person or group.


What are some characteristics of an epic?
Characters are superhuman, have fabulous adventures, has highly stylized language

Poem that tells thoughts and feelings of the speaker
Lyric Poetry

Is lyric poetry and a narrative the same?
NO, lyric poetry addresses the speaker

Slip or blunder in etiquette, manners, or conduct; an embarrassing social blunder or indiscretion.
Faux Pas (French; 1670-1680)

Made for a particular day – used of an item not specified on the regular menu.
du jour (French)

What period of literature occurred between 185-1914?
Expansion (Historic Literature)

What are some common forms of literature of the Expansion period?
Slave Narratives (1st true form of American Literature), Journals of soldiers, frontier writers (Mark Twain)

Form of literature in which they express real life as ordinary people lived it.

Characteristics of Realism Literature
-Renders reality closely-Characters are more important than action/plot-Complex Characters-Class is important-Plausible events-Natural Language-Author objectivity

Very scientific take on writing about human nature

Characteristics of Naturalism Literature
-Authors are objective-Can often be very gloomy/depressed-Characters usually low class, ill educated, who’s lives are governed by heredity, instinct, or passion.

-Attempts to exercise freewill blocked by forces beyond their control-Animalistic nature/brutishness of humanity

Literature written by form slaves.
Slave Narratives

Characteristics of Slave Narratives
-Depicts life as a slave in the south-Gained popularity before and during Civil War-Spurred the Civil War

Poem having a fixed number of syllables per line which make up the meter.
Syllabic poetry

Forms of syllabic Verse
Haiku and Tanka

A poem about nature that does not use personification and contains two distinct and strong images.

Japanese poem usually consisting of five lines. Two seemingly unrelated events or images are brought together in one poem.

Forms of Haikue
1. 5 syllables – Introduces one image 7 syllables – Introduces another image 5 syllables – Continues with second image2. 5 syllables – Introduces one image 7 syllables – Continues talking about first image 5 syllables – Introduces a new image

Place where story takes place.

Setting (Geographic location, time period, socio-economic characteristics of location, specific building or room)

True or False: Setting can tell you about the characters and sets the atmosphere for the story.

People appearing in the work.
Characters (animals, things, etc.)

Characters that are convincing, true to life.

Have many different and sometimes contradictory personality traits.

Round Characters

Characters that undergo some type of change or development in story, often because of something that happens to them.
Dynamic Characters

Characters that are stereotyped, shallow, and often symbolic. Have only one or two personality traits.
Flat Characters

Characters that do not change.
Static Characters

The main character in a literary work.

The character who opposes the protagonist

The author develops the personality of a character by direct statements.

Direct characterization

Author reveals character’s personality through the characters thoughts, words, actions, comments of others, and physical appearance.
Indirect Characterization

How the author arranges events to develop his/her basic idea. Sequence of events in a story or play

Starts the story, the situation before the action starts.

Series of conflicts and crisis in the story.
Rising action

Most intense moment – either mentally or physically.
Climax/Turning Point

Events and complications begin to resolve themselves.

Falling Action


Types of Conflict
Interpersonal (Human vs. Human, Nature, or Society)Internal (Human vs. Conflict)

The angle or perspective from which the story is told.
Point of View

Told from the viewpoint of one of the characters using the pronoun “I”
First Person

The main character is referred to using the pronoun “you”
Second PErson

The story is told using the narrator’s point of view. Pronouns like “he”,”she”,”his”,”her”,”they”,etc/
Third Person

The narrator has the power to show the reader what is happening through a number of character’s eyes.

Omniscient Point of View

Third person, told from the viewpoint of a character in the story.
Limited Omniscient

Third person, told as if from a camera that follows the characters. Only what is said and done is recorded.
Objective Point of View.

Central idea or message of the story.

Usually contains some insight into the human condition – telling something about human life.


Type of Irony;Contrast between what is said and what is meant; sarcasm.
Verbal Irony

Type of Irony; Contrast between what the character thinks to be true and what we know is true.
Dramatic Irony

Type of Irony; Contrast between what happens and what is expected to happen.
Situational Irony

Represents and idea, quality, or concept large than itself.

Author interrupts the plot of the story to recreate an event that happened earlier so the reader has additional information.

Writer hints to future events by providing clues or hints.

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