“ENTREPRENEURSHIP:A PATH FOR EMPOWERMENT OF DALIT WOMEN IN RURAL AREA *Nisargapriya T S1 **Dr.LokeshaM U2Abstract:The present study was carried outin Tumkur district aiming at to know the Empowerment of Dalit women through theMicro-Entrepreneurship in rural area. This study is attempting to assess theimpact of small-entrepreneurship on empowering the Dalit women which broke thetraditional occupation system. The main aim of the study is to understand theimpact of small micro-Entrepreneurship in empowering the Dalit women and alsoto find out the problems of dalit womenentrepreneurs on the operational area. Descriptiveresearch design was used.
For theconvenience of the study 50respondents had selected as sample size using purposivesampling technique. The studies found that after entering the entrepreneurshiptheir standard of living and social-economic status had increased. And thelevel of participation had increased in socio-economic and political aspects.It was highlighted that, there is a greater awaking among Dalit women about theentrepreneurship. They are gradually achieving recognition and are makingvaluable contributions to the family economy and as well as national economy.And they also being experiencing the new forms of caste discrimination. This article seeks to contribute to suchsocial problem solving by enhancing the public awareness and education on thedevelopmental possibilities of social entrepreneurship and demands suitablepolicies need to be formulated to cater the needs and aspiration of the smalland micro-entrepreneurship. KEYWORDS: Dalit women,Entrepreneurship, Tumkur.
Introduction:Ruraldevelopment is more than ever before linked to entrepreneurship. Institutionsand individuals promoting rural development now see entrepreneurship as astrategic development intervention that could accelerate the rural developmentprocess. Furthermore, institutions and individuals seem to agree on the urgentneed to promote rural enterprises: development agencies see ruralentrepreneurship as an enormous employment potential; politicians see it as thekey strategy to prevent rural unrest; farmers see it as an instrument forimproving farm earnings; and women see it as an employment possibility neartheir homes which provides autonomy, independence and a reduced need for socialsupport.Class is gradually replacing caste as the dominantfactor in Indian society and entrepreneurship is the way forward for dalits tochange their social status, ScheduledCaste Community has shown their keen interest to adopt entrepreneurship toraise their socio-economic status at par with the developed community. Forcenturies, dalits have been at the bottom of the income and social ladders,despised and exploited. Independent India aimed to improve their lot throughjob reservations, but with very limited results. Nevertheless, empowermentthrough democracy and economic opportunities created by 20 years of economicreform has created an astonishing new phenomenon.
Entrepreneurship is universally acknowledgedas playing a leading role in economic growth and there is growing evidence tosuggest that there is a significant causal relationship betweenentrepreneurship, economic growth and poverty reduction.KarnatkaState Government has been giving package of incentives to new/expansion of industries set up in the developing regions of the State since 1964. The State has declared a new Industrial Policy 2013 and through this Government is also committed for development of the society byupliftment of socially disadvantaged groups, viz. SC/ST entrepreneurs. This canbe achieved through active involvement of this sector in the main stream of industrial growth, hence the special package of incentiveshave been proposed for economic development for inclusive growth. Karnatka hasranked second place in SC Enterprises sectors report revealed by Dalit IndianChamber for Commerce and Industry 2015.
Rank State SC Enterprises 1 Tamil Nadu 18.12 2 Karnataka 16.58 3 Uttar Pradesh 14.14 4 Madya Pradesh 13.65 5 Punjab 6.35 Rationalof the Study:Tumkur district constitutes 18.4% Dalit ofpopulation. So far various research has been taken up on various issues onDalit in Karnataka.
But there are less studies on the small-entrepreneur dalitwomen and their activity in terms of investment, sources of fund, income andthe problems in the area of operation. This study is attempting to assess theimpact of small-entrepreneurship on empowering the Dalit women which broke thetraditional occupation system. The main aim of the study is to understand the impact of smallmicro-Entrepreneurship on empowering thedalit women and the associated problems of Dalit entrepreneurship. There is aneed of systematic study to asses the obstacles faced by the rural Dalitentrepreneurs and also to assess the level of entrepreneurship activities amongrural Dalit women.Objectives of the Study;· To asses the social-economic status of the Dalit womenentrepreneurs in rural area· To study the pattern of distribution of women entrepreneurs andtheir concentration on different business units.· To find out the problems in the area of operation of these Dalitwomen entrepreneurs.
Methodology : This study based on thefield work where the data was restrictedto the selected village of the study area. This study wasconducted in Tumkur District Karnataka state The design of the study was descriptive in design. For the purpose of the study 50 Dalit women small-entrepreneurs were selectedin 4 blocks of Tumkur district.. Tiptur, Turuvekere, Kunigal andChikkanayakanahalli, in each block equal representation of respondents wereconsidered, by using purposive andsnowball sampling method. The study was based both on primary and secondarymethod of data collection and observational remarks was also made whileanalyzing the data. Structurequestionnaire was administrated to collect the data.
The data was analyzed byusing simple statistical percentage analyses. Resultsand Discussion:Table-1Socio-Economic profile The above Graph -1 is showing the social-economiccondition of the respondents. The above information table it is beenhighlighted that, majority 60% of therespondents are comes under the age group of 38-48. The majority 56% of the respondents are illiterate even thoughthey are capable of handling all accounts about their business. The majority60% of the respondents is married and 18% of the women are widow and they arethe main livelihood earner for their family. Majority 56% of the women’s spouseor their fathers occupations is semi-cultivators and remaining 28% of therespondents works as agricultural labours.
Table-2showing the nature entrepreneurship Graph-2 indicates the respondents entrepreneuraspects. It could be seen that, 40% of the respondents are running petty shopsand distributed respectively 24%, 16%,12%, 8% and 0 % on grocery shop, vegetable sellers, Hotelentrepreneurs, country liquor sellers and meat sellers. Further the table alsoshows that, the period of entrepreneurship, majority 52% of the respondents arebeen in entrepreneurship for period of 2 to 4 years. While, the sources ofincome are respectively distributed 34%,32%,16%, 8%,6% and 4% on microfinance,local money lender, bank loan, own fund, relatives and friends and governmentsubsidy. It also found that many of them are depend on local money lenders.Majority 58% of the respondents shared that, initially they invested 1000 to5000 Rs for their business.
And rest of the 26% and 16% of the respondentsinitial investment is 5000 to 10000 Rs and 25000 to 50000 Rs. Majority 68% ofthe respondents were house maker before entering to the entrepreneurship andremaining 32% of the respondents were working as Domestic servant beforeentering to the entrepreneurship. Majority 76% of the respondents said that,they could able to save 0 to 2000 Rs for monthly. It can be understood thattheir entrepreneurship increased their saving capacity.
Table-3showing the impact of Entrepreneurship Theabove Graph-3 indicates the impact ofentrepreneurship among the respondents. Majority 70% of the respondents sharedthat their economic status has increased after starting entrepreneurship.Majority 70% of the respondents revealed that their social status hasincreased.. 56% of the respondents shared that, political participation hasincreased. And 52% of the respondents said their bank operation skills aredeveloped. Majority 50% of the respondents shared that, they do not have the power to utilize their earned moneyfor self.
It may conclude that the path of empowerment is still need to bereach.Table-4showing the problems of women entrepreneurs The above graphs indicate the social problems encounteredby the women entrepreneurs. The majority 68 % of the respondents revealed thatlack of finance is also the major problem for their entrepreneurship. Majority 64% of the respondentsshared that, there is lack of primary amenities on the operational area.Majority 65% of the respondents expressed the existence of the male dominancein the operational area.
Majority 92% of the women disclosed that, there is alarge extent of invisible caste discrimination practice is exist in thebusiness operational area. Dalit entrepreneurs continueto face discrimination, particularly those who want get into the business offood. Apart from that women also shared the lack of infrastructure andweak market.
Beside all this problems women showed much keen interest to grow inthis entrepreneurship. ConclusionFrom the above analysis, it may be summarized that,Dalit women are active participants in earning the bread of their family. Dalitwomen participation in market oriented activities was much less than the men.It was highlighted that, there is a greater awaking among dalit women about theentrepreneurship.
Though entrepreneurial quality is aresult of a network of existing entrepreneurs, which Dalits lacks. Hence, theyneed much more hand holding. Majority of them were unable to get the governmentsubsidy amount or loans.
They are minuscule achieving recognition and are making valuable contributions to thefamily economy and as well as national economy. The policies need to madeflexible to cater the needs and aspiration of the small andmicro-entrepreneurship and special provisions should be made for the RuralDalit entrepreneurship.References· Allen,L L, starting and succeeding inyour own business, Groseet and Danlop,New York 1968.· Anil kumar Thakur, R.Rahman (2009),Women Entrepreneurship, Deep and Deep Publications Pvt, Ltd.· Govindappa G T (1999), Rural woman entrepreneurs:constraints and strategies, Kurukshetra, Novembers· Laxmi, Women Empowerment throughSelf-Help Groups, Prateeksha Publications, 2012.
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Ltd, New Delhi. 2003· Paramasivan.and R. Anandaraman, Micro Finance and its impacts on Empowerment of Dalit womenin Cuddalore district, International Journal of Scientific Research. 2014· Rakesh Kumar Singh & Binod Kumar et,Women Entrepreneurship: problem of Finance, Deep and Deep Publications Pvt,Ltd. 2009· Singh, sheobahal entrepreneurshipdevelopment and social change, Rawat publication, Jaipur, 1985· Subba Rao Social Inclusion andEmpowerment of Marginalized communities in India, The Associated Publishers,Dolkot· The journal of entrepreneurship, July-December 2006, P-21*************** 1 Nisargapriya TS,ResearchScholar, Department of Studies and Research in Social Work, Tumkur University,Tumkur. Email: nisarga.
[email protected] 2Dr.Lokesha M U, Assistant professor, Department of Studies and Research in SocialWork, Tumkur University, Tumkur.
Email: [email protected]