ESL teachers face challenges and constraints in using resources (e.
g., students’ home languages) to better communicate with students and adjust their pedagogies, though they are sensitive to students’ social-cultural backgrounds. Language learning, especially effective error correction, relies on mediation from other individuals.
There is a growing research interest in autonomy in language teaching and learning, yet the empirical knowledge is still limited. The problem-oriented communication strategies help students solve communication breakdowns. The goal-oriented communication strategies are helpful as mediation to assist EFL students learning English. In ESL education, collaboration correlates positively with community development, language development, and students’ identity solidification. Language socialization draws on sociocultural theory and theories from other social science disciplines.
Language researchers and educators should understand the processes of language socialization, and how it influences learners’ life and future. Compared to other collective and supportive contexts that help ESL students develop their language proficiency, schooling in the study, which are full of alienation and isolations, prevent them from being engaged in rich language practices. In China, EFL students’ language learner strategies are largely shaped by grade-getting goals, and are also influenced by their learning experiences, cultural tasks, interactions with teachers, parents, and peers, and communities. Students’ self-regulation development is closely related to the social-cultural factors in the English-dominant context, which deeply impact their semiotic resources. Teachers use languaging and translanguaging as mediation to develop and give feedback to students’ needs, and use students’ funds of knowledge to enhance and increase their language learning opportunities.
Students’ writing processes develop well in linguistically rich and resourceful environments, and they self-regulate their writing abilities for higher goals than merely seeking good grades after they reach advanced levels. Both ESL and FSL students use similar scaffolding strategies in email tandem learning, with explicit feedback, face-giving strategies, and instruction being the most widely used ones. ESL students use different strategies, namely brainstorming, use of home language, peer collaboration, funds of knowledge, and humor, to help themselves improve in writing.