Ethical because it encourages an environment of trust,

Ethical considerations in research are
critically about choices and actions, especially in decision making which
distinguish between right and wrong.  It determines the difference between
acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Ethical standards will prevent
against the fabrication or falsifying of data and therefore, promote the
pursuit of knowledge and truth which is the primary goal of research. 
Ethical behavior is also critical for collaborative work because it encourages
an environment of trust, accountability, and mutual respect among
researchers.  This is important when considering issues related to data
sharing, co-authorship, copyright guidelines, confidentiality, and many other issues,
in order for the public to support and believe in the research.  Other guidelines
such as human rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, conflicts of
interest, safety and health standards and so forth, must be followed by the
researcher.  These ethical issues are greatly impact the integrity of the
research project and affected the chances to receive funding if researcher cannot
achieve this requirement.

Ethical considerations are so important in research, so that many
professional associations and agencies have adopted codes and policies for the
outline of ethical behavior and guide researchers.  The examples of codes
address issues is a honesty, objectivity, respect for intellectual property,
social responsibility, confidentiality, non-discrimination and many others. 
It provides basic guidelines, but researchers will still be facing with
additional issues that are not specifically addressed and this will require
decision-making on the part of the researcher in order to avoid
misconduct.  The resources on this page address includes many of those
issues and the case studies used in these resources provide excellent examples
of these types of issues. 

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One of the most important ethical considerations in research is the use of
human subjects.  To address these considerations, most institutions and
organizations have developed an Institutional Review Board (IRB).  An IRB
is a panel of people who help to ensure the safety of human subjects in
research and who can assist in making sure that human rights are not
violated.  They review the research methodology in grant proposals to
assure that ethical practices are being utilized.  The use of an IRB also
helps to protect the institution and the researchers against potential legal
implications from any behavior that may be deemed unethical. 

Examples of some of these issues include voluntary participation and
informed consent.   The voluntary participation requires that people not
be coerced into participating in research. It required
of informed consent whereby
participants must be fully informed about the procedures and risks involved in
research and must give their consent to participate. Harm
can be defined as both physical and psychological.  Ethical standards also protect the
confidentiality and anonymity of the subjects. Good
research practice often requires the use of a no-treatment control group – a
group of participants who do not get the
treatment or program that is being studied. But when that treatment or program
may have beneficial effects, the persons
assigned to the no-treatment control may feel of their rights to equal access
to services are being curtailed.  


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