Exam 2

Topics: ArtArtists

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Last updated: November 29, 2019

What style focuses on ornamental delicacy, intimacy, and playful elegance, which also dominated the salons of Paris and the courts and churches of Austria and Germany?
Rococo
Name the female painters who produced portraits for an almost exclusively female clientele?
Vigee-Lebrun
Name the First Painter to King Louis XV, head of the Royal Academy in Paris, and a favorite of the Marquise de Pompadour.
Boucher
Who began his or her career painting theatrical backdrops?
Watteau
What kind of paintings was encouraged by the philosophes’ demand for an art of moral virtue and produced by Greuze and Chardin that were among the most popular images of the eighteenth century?
Genre painting
Archeological investigations encouraged new interest in what artifacts and produced a more accurate picture of Classical culture than had been available previously?
Greco-Roman
What style expressed in the architectural achievements of Thomas Jefferson in America replaced the Rococo style just as the French Revolution swept away the Old Regime?
Neoclassicism
The Scottish architect of the new style who focused on Greco-Roman residential manors in England, such as Kedleston Hall, was ___________?
Adam
Who was the English pottery-maker famous for Classical motifs
Wedgewood
Neoclassicists drew on the arts of imperial Rome to glorify the French capital of Paris and which individual?
Napoleon
Describe some of the characteristic of classical music, especially features similar to those admired by Neoclassical writers, painters, sculptors, and architects.
Order, symmetry, and intellectual control
Name two to three instruments in each of the following orchestral groups: strings, percussion, brass, woodwinds
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Described Hegel’s proposal of a dialectical model.
According to which all reality, all history, and all ideas progressed toward perfect freedom
Shelley’s poems reflect a visionary and moral perception of nature. To what did he compare the elemental forces of nature with?
The creative powers of the poet
Darwin’s argued that by means of natural selection (in one or two sentences):
All living things including human beings evolved from a few simple forms: species either develop into higher forms of life or fail to survive
Exalting the natural landscape as the source of sublime inspiration and moral truth, what was the movement Wordsworth and his English contemporaries initiated called?
Romantic
Who rejoiced that nature’s fleeting beauty might forever dwell in art?
Keats
Who was the leading nature poet of the nineteenth century, embraced the redemptive power of nature?
Wordsworth
What was landscape to Western romantics?
It became an indepednet and publicly acclaimed subject in the visual arts
What is transcendentalism? Name some of the writers considered to be transcendentalist writers.
Whitman, Thoreau, and Emerson
What was documented in the art of Catlin?
The native populations and traditions of America
Whose paintings serve as an example of American folk art, which made use of natural imagery for decorative and symbolic purposes?
Hicks
In this industrial-based society, the site for production of goods has change from homes to where?
Factories
Briefly describe the theory of natural selection and its importance.
The theory of natual selectio n displaced human beings from their elevated place in the hierarchy of living creatures, it advanced the idea of the unity of nature and humankind
What becomes a source of inspiration and personal solace in Chinese literature, as reflected in Shen Fu’s confessional prose, and in painting?
Nature
For nineteenth-century Romantics, what was an expression of the expansive subjectivity of the individual?
The hero
Whose remarkable career became a model for heroic action propelled by an unbounded imagination and ambition?
Napoleon
Why was Prometheus the Greek deity considered a symbol of heroic freedom by the Romantics?
He selflessly imparted wisdom to humanity
What’s the significance of Douglass, champion of the abolitionist movement in America?
He serves today as a prime example of Promethean defiance of authority and defense of human liberty
Who was the literary figure symbolizing the quest to exceed the limits of knowledge and power, became the quintessential figure for Romantic writers, painters, and composers?
Faust
To Goethe, how did he envision his legendary character Dr.

Faust?

Asa a symbol of the ever-striving human will tomaster all forms of experience, at the risk of imperiling his eternal soul.
The act of exalting the sovereign state above all else is called?
Nationalism.
The defeat of Napoleon’s second army happened at what locations?
Waterloo
Why was Frankenstein considered a Gothic novel?
For its extreme romantic element infused with horror caused by the technological and industrai advancement at the time
Name the most famous antislavery novel in America (according to your textbook).
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
The most important antebellum musical contribution of America’s population was?
The Spiritual
The beginning of Faust is a scene in which God is making a wager with?
Satan
Who wrote the romantic opera Tristan and Isolde in 1859?
Wagner
In Bizet’s Carmen (1875), what does the lead character do for a living?
Carmen works in a cigarette factory
The final exile location for Napoleon I was?
St. Helena
The pupil of Jacques-Louis David who rejected Neoclassicism in favor of more realistic scenes of France’s emperor in theatrical settings was?
Gros
Who found inspiration in uncommon subjects such as the restless vitality of untamed horses and the faces of the clinically insane?
Gericault
Who hailed imagination as paramount in the life of the artist and focused on sensuous and violent subjects? He said, “I have no love for reasonable painting.”
Delacroix
What is exoticism?
when composers looked to the near east, americas for ideas and used them in music
By far, the most popular musical instrument in nineteenth-century Europe was?
Piano
What was the rumored regarding Paganini?
Rumored by contemporaries that he had a pact with the devil for his mucial abilities
What is purpose of Wagner’s leitmotif?
To tied sound to story, an evidence of the Romantic search for an ideal union of poetry and music
Which composer united poetry and music in the intimate form of the lied?
Schubert
Who heightened the importance of fantasy and story in his legendary Russian ballets Swan Lake, The Nutcracker, and Sleeping Beauty?
Tchaikovsky
The Italian composer Verdi and Germany’s Wagner are still famous for exploiting what (hint: sociopolitical) themes in their compositions?
Nationalistic themes
Musical pieces (often short) that have an improvised sound in spite of their carefully written notation are called?
Impromptus
During the second half of the nineteenth century, as Western industrialization accelerated, which movement came to rival Romanticism both as a style and as an attitude of mind?
Realism
Describe some of the effects Western imperialism in some parts of Africa, Asia, and in the Middle East had on independent growth and productivity.
What is Utilitarianism? Briefly describe.
A social theory forwarded by Jeremy Bentham, stating governments should work to secure the greatest happiness for the grestest number of people
Which social theory argues that society should operate entirely in the interest of the needs of the people, communally and cooperatively, rather than competitively?
Socialism
What early social theory was firmly based in the ideals of the Enlightenment?
Liberalism
Who was the leading proponent of liberalism who defended the exercise of individual liberty as protected by the state?
Mill
Zola initiated a variant form of literary Realism known as?
Naturalism
Ibsen was the dramatist who shocked his contemporary audiences with such subject matters as incest, insanity, and venereal disease from what country?
Norwegian
What are the two technological inventions during the nineteenth century that encouraged artists to produce objective records of their surroundings?
Photography and lithography
In painting, who led the Realist movement with canvases depicting the activities of humble and commonplace men and women?
Courbet
Who shocked public taste by modernizing Classical subjects and violating conventional painting techniques?
Manet
What architecture offered a prophetic glimpse into the decades that would produce steel-framed skyscrapers?
Crystal Palace
In the opera Madame Butterfly, the Italian “verist” Giacomo Puccini presented a timely view of what sociopolitical phenomenon?
America’s imperialistic presence in Asia
By the mid-nineteenth century, what technology/instrument was used to document all aspects of contemporary life as well as to provide artists with detailed visual data?
Camera
Debussy drew inspiration from what art forms to create a mood of reverie in the shifting harmonies of his Prelude to “The Afternoon of a Faun?”
Indonesian music, Wagnerian opera, and symbolic poetry
Who was the provocative German thinker that detected in European materialism a deepening decadence, called for a revision of traditional values?
Nietzsche
Who presented a positive view of life as a vital impulse that evolved creatively and intuitively?
Bergson
Name some of the symbolist poets who devised a language of sensation that evoked (rather than described) feeling.
Paul Verlaine and Arthur Rimbaud
Why would the Impressionists sacrifice the details of perceived objects?
In order to capture the effects of light and atmosphere and tried to record an instantaneous vision of their world
Which painter fused the immediacy of the French painting fashion with the Classical demand for line and form; he is famous for his depictions of ballerinas.
Degas
Toulouse-Lautrec was famous for his posters of _________?
Parisian nightlife
An ornamental style originated in Belgium that became enormously popular in the late nineteenth century was?
Art nouveau
Louis Comfort Tiffany is famous for advancing the “new art” in what mediums?
Art glass
Duncan was an innovative pioneer of what art form?
Modern dance
Which painters lived for many years in Tahiti?
Gauguin
What is pointillism?
The use of many tiny dots to generate the impression of a solid form
According to the text, the first modernist painter was?
Cezanne
Contributing to the European obsession with foreign culture was the World’s Fair of 1880 held in what city?
Paris
What medical innovation allowed Europeans to send expeditions into Africa without the fear of malaria?
Quinine

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