Exceptional Children Chapter 4 IDD

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Last updated: May 9, 2019
Old Definition of IDD(then call Mentally Retarded MR)
 IDEAdefinition – THIS IS THE OLD  (1983)  DEFINITION!

Significantly sub-average intellectual functioning
Deficits in adaptive behavior
Manifested during the developmental period

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Three criteria for a diagnosis
Significant sub-average intellectual functioning – a score of two or more standard deviations below the mean on standardized intelligence tests
An individual must be well below average in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior
The deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior must occur during the developmental period to help distinguish mental retardation from other disabilities

AAIDD Def:Intellectual Disabilities Disorder (IDD)2010
 Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18.

38in; unicode-bidi: embed; direction: ltr; margin-bottom: 0pt; margin-left: 0.38in; vertical-align: baseline; language: en-US; mso-line-break-override: none; punctuation-wrap: hanging;”>Assumptions are essential to understanding and appropriately applying the definition

Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individual’s age peers and culture.
Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in communication, sensory, motor, and behavioral factors.
Within the individual, limitations often coexist with strengths.
With appropriate personalized supports over a sustained period, the life functioning of the person with intellectual disability generally will improve.

Identification and Assessment of IDD
Assessing Intellectual Functioning

Standardized tests are used to assess intelligence
A diagnosis of IDD requires an IQ score at least 2 standard deviations below the mean (70 or less)

38in; vertical-align: baseline; language: en-US; mso-line-break-override: none; punctuation-wrap: hanging;”>Important considerations of IQ tests:

IQ is a hypothetical construct
IQ tests measure how a child performs at one point in time   (static test)
IQ tests can be culturally biased    (B.

I,T.C.H test)

IQ scores can change significantly based upon various factors (structured life)
IQ testing is not an exact science
Results are not useful for targeting educational objectives

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assessing Adaptive Behavior

Adaptive behavior is the collection of conceptual, social, and practical skills that have been learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives
Measurement of adaptive behavior has proven difficult because of the relative nature of social adjustment and competence

Functions of Students with IDD “Mild”
 MildUsually not identified until school ageMost students master many academic skills to 4th or 5th grade levelMost learn job skills well enough to support themselves, independently or semi-independently
Functionings of Students with IDD “Moderate”
 ModerateMost show significant delays in development during preschool yearsGrowing older, discrepancies in age-related adaptive & intellectual skills widen
Functionings of Students with IDD “Severe”
 SevereUsually identified at birth; limited language acquisitionMost have significant central nervous system damage, SIB possibleLikely to have health care problems that require intensive supports
Functionings of Students with IDD“Profound”
 ProfoundVery severe problems, little or no actual language acquisition, SIB is commonThey require pervasive levels of support in virtually every area of human functioning
Charactericstics of students with IDD

Cognitive functioning
Memory (visual, auditory, physical)
Learning rate and ‘overlearning’ necessities
Attention & Motivation
LESS stimuli are better than too much in teaching!
Adaptive behavior
Self-care and daily living skills
Communication (receptive, expressive, written)
Social development
Behavioral excesses and challenging behavior

Generalization & Maintenance of Learned Skil

Prevelance of IDD
Approximately 0.81% of the total school enrollment received   sped services in IDD
Biological causes of IDD
Biological Causes –  The #1 cause worldwide is  Malnutrition    Prenatal causes include:   Down syndrome, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders,   Fragile X syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Phenylketonuria,   Prader-Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome   Perinatal – include Intrauterine disorders, Neonatal disorders   Postnatal – include Head injuries, Infections, Degenerative disorders
Enviornmental causes of IDD
Environmental Causes   Minimal opportunities to develop early language  Child abuse and neglect  Chronic social or sensory deprivation
Prevention of IDD

The biggest single preventive strike against IDD was the development of the rubella vaccine in 1962
Toxic exposure through maternal substance abuse and environmental pollutants are two major causes of preventable IDD that can be combated with education and training
Advances in medical science have enabled doctors to identify certain genetic influences
Although early identification and intensive educational services to high-risk infants show promise, there is still no widely used technique to decrease the incidence of IDD caused by psychosocial disadvantage

“Soft Skills”
 to understand how to behave in a occupational environment
Educational Approaches
 Curriculum Goals

Functional curriculum
Life skills

Instructional Methods

Explicit and systematic instruction 


Task analysis


Active student response


Systematic feedback provided by the teacher


Transfer of stimulus control from prompts to task


Generalization and maintenance


Direct and frequent measurement of student performance

Explicit and systematic instruction
 -keep track of what you are doing in the classroom, compare your older results and newer results.  T-his is how you know if you reach your benchmark
Task Analysis
Breaking down complex or multistep skills into smaller, easier-to-learn subtasks.e.g. Shaping a skill, scaffolding a skill
Mediated Scaffolding
Provide and then fade prompts and cues so student can respond to naturally occuring stimuli.
Transfer of Stimulus Control
Teacher provides a prompt that makes a correct response very probable.  The correct response is reinforced.  This is repeated.  The response is gradually and systematically withdrawn so that the student’s performance comes under the stumulus control of natural cues: “persons, objects, or events that act a ‘signals’ for learned behavior to occur outside of instructional situations.”
Generalization and Maintenance
the extent to which students use what they have learned across settings and over time.
Functional Curriculum

;Educators choose learning activities in a;functional curriculum because they;will maximize a student;s independence, self-direction, and enjoyment in school, home, community, and work environments.

Life Skills

;Skills that will help the student transition into adult life in the community

Self Determination

;Self-determined learners set goals, plan and implement a course of action, evaluate their performance, and make adjustments in what they are doing to reach their goals

Educational Placement
During the 2005;2006 school year,;

; 14.1% of students with mental retardation were educated in the general education classroom
;29.1% were served in resource room programs
;50.2% were served in separate classes
;6.7% of students with mental retardation are educated in separate schools, residential facilities, or home/hospital environments

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