Exceptional Children

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Last updated: May 9, 2019
Children who need Exceptional Education
included in exceptional education include those who differ from the norm in such an extent that they require individualized program.

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0pt;”>The loss of reduced function of a particular body part or organ.

When the impairment limits a person’s ability to perform certain tasks
Problem or disadvantage that a person with disability or impairment encounters when interacting with the environment. 
AT Risk
Refers to children who are not currently classified as having a disability but have a high probability that a disability may exist.
Dignity of Risk
teaching people to take a risk or chance.

  Setting the environment with the opportunity to succeed or fail.

 Least Restrive Enviornment(LRE)
 LRE is the setting that is closest to a regular school program that meets the child’s special educational needs  – The IEP team must determine if the annual goals and short-term objectives can be achieved in the regular classroom.
 Educating students with disabilities in regular classrooms  
Getting students up to a standard and putting them in the general education classroom.
When to remove a student from a classroom
Remove– Placement must not be regarded as permanent
What is Labeling Positives and Negatives
 Labeling: Federal law requires labeling for students to be eligible for special education.  Under the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), to receive special education and related services, a child must be indentified as having a disability (i.e.

labeled).  This is ages 3-9PositivesNegatives: stereotypes, stigma, low expectations of the child from the teachers,Protections and Advocacy- these are agencies, proponents

Responsiveness To Intervention
Responsiveness to intervention (RTI): happens before 3 grade. The idea is to provide early intervention in the form of scientifically validated instruction to all children in the school whose performance suggests they are at risk of Failure in school.

nondiscriminatorymultifactoredevaluation (MFE):

Hurried Child Syndrome(HCS)

Program Planning
an individualizes education program must be developled for children identified as having a disability
Review and Evaluation
The IEP must be thoroughly and formally reviewed on an annual basis.

Individualized Education Program(IEP)
IDEA requires that an IEP be developed and implemented for every student with disabilities between the ages of 3 and 21.Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 94-142IEP Team must include the following– Parents– Regular– Special Education Teacher– Individual who can interpret evaluation results– Others at the discretion of the parent or schoole– The student (age 14 or older must be invited)
Individualized Family Service Plans(IFSP)
 Individualized family service plans are developed for infants and toddlers from birth to age 2. 
IEP Components
1.A statement of present levels of educational performance2.A statement of annual goals3.A statement of special education and related services4.An explanation of the extent to which the student will not participate with nondisabled children5.

Individual modifications6.The projected date for the beginning and duration of services7.A statement of how the child will be assessed8.Beginning at age 16, an individual transition plan must be developed

IEP Functions and Formats
  across school districts – ProperlyThe purpose is to create a document that goes beyond compliance with the law and actually functions as a meningful guide
Brown v. Board of Education1954
 Brown v.

Board of education: The case established the right of all children to an equal opportunity for an education. Equal education must be made available to all children on equal terms.

   –  Separate but equal is not constitutionalthis case was fighting for equal rights for blacks and Birth of Special Education. This same principle was to be applied to students with disabilities.

Parents based their argument on the 14th.
First Case was to fight 14th amendment was up in Colleton County by  
-Supreme court justice Warren after a trip, came back early and convinced everyone to vote to change the 14th amendment

(PARC) vs.


 PARC vs. Penn– 13th Amendment Equal protection
Mills vs. The Board of Education of The District of Columbia 1972
 Mills vs. Board of Education: School claimed it didn’t have enough money to provide education to children with  learning and behavioral problem.  Court ruled that financial problems cannot have a greater impact on children with disabilities.  Kids put back in school.

Cant put people in special education without Due process

* PARC and Mills case were benchmark in creating 94-142

Section 504Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Beginning mandates working toward equal education Addresses discriminatory practices in housing, health care, education programs, and in employment   Covers children who have a physical or mental impairment that limits a major life activity or are regarded as having such a disabilityDiscretely addresses the failure of public schools to educate students with disabilities  

Mandates that public schools provide free and appropriate educational (FAPE) services to all students who have disabilities

Free and Appropriate Public Education(FAPE)
All children with disabilities, regardless of the type or severity of their disability, shall receive a free appropriate public education.
Six Principles of Special Education Law

nFree appropriate public education (FAPE)
nAppropriate, nondiscriminatory, and multidisciplinary evaluation
nIndividualized Education Plan (IEP)
nLeast Restrictive Environment (LRE)

67in; vertical-align: baseline; language: en-US; mso-line-break-override: none; punctuation-wrap: hanging;”>nParent and Student Participation in decision making

nProcedural Safeguards

School Criticisms of IDEA

Excessive procedures and paperwork
IDEA protects Children and parents but not districts, schools and teachers
Reduces schools ability to educate regular education students
Unfunded mandate
-developed without much input from the field

Student Parent Criticisms of IDEA

Parents say schools do not follow IEPs
Hearing Officers are not impartial
Services are less expensive then the fight to provide them
Schools and Districts may retaliate
Children Labeled because schools have not taught them
Minorities are over identified
Transition services are not adequate

Taxpayer Criticisms of IDEA

No child is so severely disabled that they do not qualify for IDEA
Related Services can be medical treatments and there is no requirement that private health insurance be used
-As a society, do we give to much to those who cannot offer much in return, and not enough to those with the most potential

America with Disabilities ActADA1990

nEnacted in 1990 as a broad civil rights statue that extends protections to private industry, public entities, public accommodations, telecommunications and private nonsectarian schools (CASE, 1999; Rea & Davis-Dorsey, 2004).
nEnforced and regulated under the Department of Justice (United States Department of Justice, 2004).  
nADA covers any individual with a physical or mental impairment that limits one or more major life activity or is regarded as having such impairment (CASE, 1999).

No Child Left Behind2001

nParadigm shift from IDEA 97’s emphasis on assistance to Accountability (Yell & Katsiyannis, 2004)
nNCLB (2001) was created in reaction to low academic achievement, is a sweeping legislative act that will exert profound influence on education, recognizes and embraces science and the use of empirically based practices, will ultimately affect the way universities prepare future teachers and the way teachers teach their students.

nAccountability as

measured by adequate yearly progress (AYP)

¨Specifically in math and reading (2013-2014)

¨Within safe schools

¨Use of highly qualified teachers (2005-2006)


Use of scientifically based instruction

Cultural Competence

nAn ability to function within the context of integrated patterns of behavior defined by a group.
nTeachers’ own experiences and curiosities of how they perceive students from various cultural backgrounds have a profound influence on students’ attitudes andbehavior.

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